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Chapter 3. Configuring and Managing the DHCP Server Role. DHCP overview. RARP – one of the first ways to assign addresses BOOTP – Another legacy way to assign addresses. Still had manual aspects to it. DHCP – Based heavily off of BOOTP, but it is all dynamic. Centralized administration

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Configuring and Managing the DHCP Server Role

dhcp overview
DHCP overview
  • RARP – one of the first ways to assign addresses
  • BOOTP – Another legacy way to assign addresses. Still had manual aspects to it.
  • DHCP – Based heavily off of BOOTP, but it is all dynamic.
    • Centralized administration
    • Dynamic host configuration
    • Seamless
    • Flexibility and scalability
how dhcp works
How DHCP works
  • Functions on the Application layer of OSI
  • Uses UDP broadcast messages
  • DHCP message Types
    • DHCPDISCOVER – sent by clients via broadcast to locate a DHCP Server.
    • DHCPOFFER – Sent by DHCP server to client in response to DHCPDISCOVER along with offered configuration parameters.
    • DHCPREQUEST - Sent by client to signal acceptance of offered address and parameters.
dhcp messages contd
DHCP Messages contd.
  • DHCPDECLINE - Sent by client informing the server the offered IP address has been declined.
  • DHCPACK – Sent by server to confirm IP address.
  • DHCPNACK – Sent by server to deny the clients DHCPREQUEST.
  • DHCPRELEASE – sent by client relinquishing IP address and canceling the remaining lease.
  • DHCPINFORM – sent from client to ask for additional configuration parameters.
putting the messages to work1
Putting the Messages to Work
  • The client will perform the initial process in the following situations:
    • The very first time the client boots
    • After releasing its IP address
    • After receiving a DHCPNACK message
  • Other situations, such as renewing, the process will be different. Refer to Page 40-41 of the reading.
using the dhcp relay agent
Using the DHCP Relay Agent
  • Because DHCP uses broadcast messages you can not use DHCP across multiple subnets.
  • To pass DHCP messages through the router it must be RFC 1542 compliant.
  • If the router is not RFC 1542 compliant you can install the DHCP relay agent.
  • The relay agent will forward messages to the DHCP server.
authorizing a dhcp server
Authorizing a DHCP Server
  • You must authorize a DHCP server in Active Directory before you can issue leases to clients.
  • In a workgroup environment this does not need to be done.
  • To authorize go into the DHCP console and choose to authorize.
configuring dhcp scopes
Configuring DHCP Scopes
  • Scope – the addresses that able to be assigned
    • through is and example
  • Exclusion range – used to define addresses within the scope that will NOT be given out to clients.
  • Available Address Pool – after all ranges and exclusion are defined the remaining addresses are referred to this.
configuring a dhcp reservation
Configuring a DHCP Reservation
  • A reservation allows you to specify a specific address for a host.
  • Ensures the host will always have that address, sort of like assigning a static address
  • The host’s MAC address is used to make the reservation
configuring dhcp options
Configuring DHCP Options
  • Options are additional client-configuration parameters
    • 4 types
      • Server options – apply to all clients of the DHCP server
      • Scope options – apply to all clients within a scope
      • Class options – provide DHCP parameters to DHCP clients based on type
      • Client options – apply to individual clients. Client options override all other options
managing the dhcp database
Managing the DHCP Database
  • Backup and Restore
  • Reconciliation – verifies DHCP database against registry values. After restore.
  • Compacting the database –optimizes database and reclaims unused space.
  • Removing the database

You Learned

  • DHCP is a simple, standard protocol that makes TCP/IP network configuration much easier for the administrator by dynamically assigning IP addresses and providing additional configuration information to DHCP clients automatically.
  • Additional configuration information is provided in the form of options and can be associated with reserved IPs to a vendor or user class, to a scope, or to an entire DHCP server.

Lesson 3


You Learned (cont.)

  • Because DHCP is a key component in your organization, you must manage and monitor it.
  • DHCP management consists of backing up and restoring the database as well as reconciling, compacting, and, in some cases, removing the database.

Lesson 3