Resolved: Justice requires the recognition of animal rights. Topic Analysis
What is Justice? • What are some ideas relating to justice? • Fairness • Reasonable cause • Equality • Social contract • Law - judicial system • Punishment - Eye for an eye • Deterrence/prevention
What are animals? • Any living organism • Any heterotrophic organism • Any living being that is not a human
What are rights? • Give examples of rights: • Life • Freedom / Liberty • Religion • Speech • Pursuit of Happiness / Property • Justice - Legal Rights • Political rights • Not to be harmed/hurt - Safety • Security
Affirmative Ideas • Fairness means protecting the rights of all living beings (i.e. unfair to only focus on humans) • Define humans as animals --> should protect • Animals can feel the same amount of pain as humans • Animals can’t protect themselves, so as humans, we ought to protect them • Animals can communicate and are fairly intelligent • Justice system already protects some animal rights • Animals provide things for humans • Without protection, we may endanger the environment/ecosystem
Negative Ideas • Protecting all animals rights is expensive • Save more human lives $$$ • Compare animals’ worth to humans’ • Value of human contribution vs. animal • Animals are not culpable • Infringing on animals’ rights is a necessary evil • Population control
Forming an Argument • Claim – the bottom line statement • Warrant – the reasoning/evidence • A quotation from an expert • Data and/or statistics • Logical reasoning • Impact – the consequences/effect • Arguments that lack any one of the above are BAD arguments
Identify the Claim-Warrant-Impact • The death penalty should be abolished because it kills innocent people. In doing so, we would save innocent lives. • Everybody should eat pizza because it tastes good. Everybody would then have a tasty meal. • There should be a speed limit in school zones because there is a lot of pedestrian traffic around a school. As a result, there will be fewer accidents and lives will be saved.
Examples of weak arguments • Chocolate ice cream is better than vanilla • All students should have GPS attached to them so that parents will know where they are at all times. • All intersections around a school should be 4-way stops in order to prevent accidents. • Everybody should possess nuclear weapons because if everybody has them, then nobody will use them and we will have peace.
Picking apart an argument • Attack the claim, warrant, or impact • Attack the link between them • Introduce counter-evidence • Introduce other impacts • Look for anything weird • Circular argument • Contradictions • Etc.
Assignment for Monday (9/19/11) • Use the evidence packet, specifically: • Position and Argument Starters (Aff & Neg) • Selected Evidence/Quotations on the Topic (Aff & Neg) – Do *not* read in entirety. You can skim by reading the taglines, and then read the quotation if you like the tagline • Construct 3 Aff and 3 Neg arguments using the Claim-Warrant-Impact template
Example Aff Argument Claim: Protecting animal rights will help save the environment Warrant: “Factory farming as web know it—and its devastating environmental effects—would not be possible if we were to criminalize cruelty to agricultural animals. Fewer agricultural animals will necessarily translate to less methane and other greenhouse gas emissions, less water consumption and pollution, and less erosion of topsoil.” – Kyle Landis-Marinello Impact: By protecting animals’ rights in factory farms, we would be taking another step towards reducing pollution and preserving the environment for the future.