Ancient Egypt Main Menu • Walk like an Egyptian – Drawing Egyptian People • Hieroglyphics • Pyramids • Mummies • About Ancient Egypt and Ancient Egyptian Art • Resources Click to Begin
Geography • Located in the Nile river valley • Civilization developed by about 3,000 BC
People • Communities were made up of: • Hunters and fishermen • Soldiers • Slaves • Priests • Scribes • Artists and craftsmen • Farmers and herdsmen Fishing Scene Tomb of Kenamun About 1430 BC
Pharaoh • The leader was called a pharaoh. • The pharaoh was believed to be half man, half god. • The afterlife of the pharaoh is an important theme in ancient Egyptian art.
Pyramids • The greatest architectural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians were the pyramids. • Pyramids were built as tombs for the pharaohs. The pyramids contained the items that the Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh would need in the afterlife. • Much of the ancient Egyptian art that remains today was preserved in the pyramids.
Other Art created by Ancient Egyptians • Egyptian people had a rich culture and loved to make art. • The Egyptian people also made statues, relief carvings, paintings, pottery, jewelry, sculptures and even coffins. • Most ancient Egyptian art is found buried in the ground or found in ancient Egyptian pyramids.
Relief Carvings Title: Seti I's Campaigns, Temple of Amun at Karnak, Thebes (exterior wall, north side of hypostyle). Date: ca. 1280 BCE.
Do you think ancient Egyptian culture has had an impact on our life today?
Ancient Egyptian culture has influenced our lives in many ways. • Some of our buildings are based on Egyptian architecture. • Did you know there is a pyramid shaped hotel in Las Vegas? • Some of our language comes from the Egyptian wriiten language of hieroglyphs. • Sometimes people dress up in mummy costumes as well as wear jewelry with Egyptian designs. • Hollywood has filmed Egyptian based movies such as Cleopatra and The Mummy. • Song writers have written songs about Egyptian themes.
Egyptian artists liked to show everything from what they thought was the best possible viewpoint. Ancient Egyptian artists used a style called frontalismto draw people.
Frontalism The face is from a side or profile view. The eye is from a front view. The arms and feet are from a profile view. The shoulders and chest are from a front view.
Frontalism Can you see the front and profile views of these Egyptian figures?
Frontalism Look for the characteristics of Frontalism in this work of art. • The face is from a side or profile view. • The eye is from a front view. • The arms and feet are from a profile view. • The shoulders and chest are from a front view.
To Draw An Ancient Egyptian Person Just follow these steps... • The face is from a side or profile view. • The eye is from a front view. • The arms and feet are from a profile view. • The shoulders and chest are from a front view.
Hieroglyphics is the written language of the ancient Egyptian people. • Hieroglyphs appear on tomb and temple walls, statues, papyrus (paper) and even jewelry. • Text could be read from left to right, right to left, or up and down depending on which way the symbols faced. • Hieroglyphic writing is one of the most beautiful systems of writing ever created.
How Did People Learn To Write It? • Ancient Egyptians would attend a special school to learn to write and read hieroglyphics. • Egyptians who learned how to write the language were called Scribes.
What Did They Write On? • First, they cut a plant called papyrus into thin layers. Then they the papyrus strips flat and pounded them with a mallet. Finally, they used a smoothing stone to smooth it out. • They wrote on the papyrus paper with reed pens which they dipped into ink. • They also carved and painted hieroglyphics on tombs and temple walls.
The Rosetta Stone • The Rosetta Stone was found by French soldiers who were rebuilding a fort in Egypt in 1799. The Rosetta Stone is believed to have been made in 196 B.C. • The Rosetta Stone was inscribed with three different texts Greek, Demotic, Hieratic. Each text says the same thing. • The Rosetta Stone text was written by the priests in ancient Egypt to honor the Pharaohs. It lists all the good things the Pharaohs have done for the people and priests.
Examples of Egyptian Hieroglyphics Click on the red box to write your name in Hieroglyphics
There are approximately 100 Pyramids in Egypt • A pyramid was built to be the tomb of a king called a pharoah. • Secret chambers in the pyramid held the king’s mummy, coffins and special items from the king’s afterlife. • Ancient Egyptian people believed the pyramid connected the sky and the earth.
The first pyramid was built for King Zoser. It was a “step pyramid”. It was designed and built by an artist and architect named Imhotep. • Imhotep is the first architect whose name is recorded in history. • This pyramid was built about 2600 BC.
The pyramids were built using blocks of stone. • Originally the exterior of the pyramids had a smooth quality. However, due to time, wind, weather, etc. this smooth façade has worn away. You can see a small remainder of the facade on the photo to the top left.
The Great Pyramid was originally 481 feet high and each side was 756 feet long.
Look at the size of these pyramids compared to the size of the people below.
Other Egyptian Architectural Structures • The ancient Egyptians also built beautiful temples. • This is the Temple of Ra
Temple of Ra Title: Hypostyle Hall of Temple of Amun-Ra, Karnak, Thebes. Date: ca. 1290-1224 BCE.
Other Egyptian Architectural Structures • Temple of Queen Hatshepsut Title: Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri Date: ca. 1478–1458 BCE.
Title: Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel. 19th Dynasty. Date: ca. 1279-1213 BCE. • Temple of Ramses II
Title: Interior Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel. 19th Dynasty. Date: ca. 1279-1213 BCE. • Interior Temple of Ramses II
Mummification means to preserve a body. The Egyptian people created mummies by packing the dead with salt and then wrapping the body with linen cloth. The process of mummification took about 70days. The mummified body would be placed in a wooden coffin. That coffin would be placed in a stone sarcophagus.
Mummy Links Click here to play National Geographic kids – Tomb of the Unknown Mummy Game Game Click here to learn more about mummification and ancient Egypt
Sources: Hodge, Susie. Ancient Egyptian Art. Des Plaines, Hienemann Interactive Library, 1998. Egyptian Mythology Gallery http://members.aol.com/egyptart/mytho.html The Cleveland Museum of Art Hieroglyphics and Their Decipherment By Marie Parsons http://www.kidskonnect.com/content/view/253/27/ http://www.clevelandart.org/kids/egypt/index.html http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2002/egypt/index.htm The Art of Ancient Egypt (Met Museum) National Gallery of Art The Quest for Immortality Virtual Tours, Slideshows, Videos