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A Uniform North American Cargo Securement Standard. Overview of Proposed Model Regulation March 1999 . Context. A Uniform, North American Cargo Securement Standard. Expectation:

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a uniform north american cargo securement standard

A Uniform North American Cargo Securement Standard

Overview of

Proposed Model Regulation

March 1999

a uniform north american cargo securement standard3
A Uniform, North American Cargo Securement Standard

Expectation:

  • a performance based cargo securement standard which can be uniformly implemented and applied throughout North America

Process:

  • joint effort, open discussion and collaboration between governments and stakeholders from Canada and United States
background
Background
  • Research program to address problems with cargo securement developed by Ontario MTO in early ‘90’s
  • Research conducted under sponsorship and direction of joint Canada-U.S., public-private partnership
  • Research & testing completed in early 1997
  • Findings delivered to joint Canada/United States committee to support development of new regulations
standard development organization
Standard Development - Organization

Canada

Council of Deputy Ministers of Transportation

United States

Federal Highway Administration

Mexico

Secretaria de

Comunicaciones Y

Transportes

CCMTA

CVSA

North American Standard Harmonization Committee

Membership:

Open to all public & private stakeholders

and other interested parties

standards harmonization committee
Standards Harmonization Committee
  • open membership
  • eight meetings held from 1996 to fall 1998
  • broad participation from both governments and industry
    • federal, state and provincial governments
    • trucking industry
    • shippers
    • equipment manufacturers
meeting results
Meeting Results
  • Performance Criteria ~ the fundamental basis for cargo securement requirements
  • Format of standard ~ review of existing regulations and models used in other countries
  • Evolutionary process ~ variety of expectations
    • simple standard: clear, usable and enforceable
    • practical guide: advice based on research and testing results
meeting results8
Meeting Results

Convergence to consensus

  • agreement on scope and application of standard
  • agreement on performance criteria
  • agreement on framework for standard:
    • general requirements which apply to all cargo
    • specific requirements for commodities which pose high risk or challenges to securement
  • agreement on list of specific commodities
north american standard
North American Standard
  • development of a “model” regulation which can be implemented throughout North America
  • ultimate vision of standard in two parts:
    • “Model Regulation” ~ the regulatory aspects of the proposed standard
    • “The Guide” ~ elaboration on the regulations, what’s required, what’s good practice, basis for training programs
slide10

Cargo

Securement

Principles

guiding principle
Guiding Principle
  • public safety requires that cargo being transported on the highway system must remain on or within the transporting vehicle under all conditions which could reasonably be expected to occur in normal driving and when a driver is responding to emergency situations, short of a crash.
performance criteria
Performance Criteria

Vertical

(bumps, rough roads)

Rearward

(accelerating,

braking in reverse)

Forward

(braking)

Sideways

(cornering)

performance criteria implications
Performance Criteria - Implications

- the cargo must be secured in a manner which prevents it from falling from, or shifting on, the vehicle when subjected to the forces which would occur with the “performance criteria”

- vehicle structures and attachments must be strong enough to supply the necessary restraining forces

~ bulkheads, walls, floors, anchor points etc

- the securing equipment must be strong enough to supply the necessary restraining forces

~ tiedowns, chains, ratchets, binders, etc

contained cargo
Contained Cargo

Cargo is contained and secured by the vehicle structure, additional securing devices not needed:

~ liquids in tankers,

~ bulk solids in tankers or dump boxes, ~ general freight in van trailers or containers

blocked cargo
Blocked Cargo

Cargo is restrained against movement in at least one direction by vehicle structures, such as headboards or bulkheads, or other cargo.

attached cargo direct tiedowns
Attached Cargo - Direct Tiedowns

Cargo is restrained by tie-downs which are attached to both the vehicle and the cargo.

attached cargo direct attachment
Attached Cargo - Direct Attachment

Cargo is attached to vehicle by locking devices, twist locks other integral locking systems. Friction between the load and the loading deck is not relied upon for cargo restraint.

restrained by indirect tiedowns
Restrained by Indirect Tiedowns
  • Cargo is restrained against movement by friction.
    • Friction prevents the cargo from slipping forwards, rearwards and sideways.
    • Tie-downs increase the effective weight of the cargo and prevent it from moving vertically
combined restraint
Combined Restraint

Friction + Blocking

Friction + Direct Restraint

forces on cargo
Forces on Cargo

Forward Direction (eg. under braking):

Friction

Force800 lb

1000 lb

Travel

Forces: Total forward = 800 lb.

Restraint: Friction = Coefficient of Friction x Weight

coefficient of friction
Coefficient of Friction

Friction

1000 lb.

forces on cargo23
Forces on Cargo

Friction

10 to 500 lb

Deceleration Force800 lb

1000 lb

Travel

Deceleration Force: 800 lb.

Restraint due to friction: 10 to 500 lb.

forces on cargo24
Forces on Cargo

Tiedown - tension 500 lb

Friction

20 to 1000 lb

Deceleration Force800 lb

Travel

Deceleration Force: 800 lb.

Effective Weight of Cargo: 2000 lb (1000+500+500)

Restraint due to friction: 20 to 1000 lb.

indirect tiedowns

? 500 lb

Indirect Tiedowns

Objective: Increase the effective weight of the cargo -

increase the restraining effect of friction

Concern: Angle of tiedown is important

Example: Tension in tiedown = 500 lb

Angle = 90 degrees 60 degrees 45 degrees 30 degrees

Downforce 1000 lb 866 lb 707 lb 500 lb

indirect tiedowns26
Indirect Tiedowns

Effectiveness: - maintain tension

- keep articles of cargo together or fill gaps to prevent shifting

- maintain steep tiedown angles

direct tiedowns
Direct Tiedowns

Force800 lb

1000 lb.

Tiedown attached to vehicle and to cargo:

- tiedown must break for cargo to shift

- tiedowns react directly to forces

- shallow tiedown angles are more effective

tipping
Tipping

Height

Force

Base

If height is more than 2 times the base, tipping can occur at ~ 0.5 g acceleration.

If height is more than 1.25 times the base, tipping can occur at ~ 0.8 g acceleration.

model regulation outline
Model Regulation - Outline

Part 1 -Application and Objectives

Part 2 - General Provisions and Requirements

Part 3 - Specific Securement Requirements by Commodity Type

Part 4 - Definitions

Part 5 - Referenced Standards

Part 6 - Default Working Load Limits

part 1 application and objectives
Part 1 - Application and Objectives
  • Applies to any motor vehicle in excess of 4500 kg (10,000 lb)
  • Cargo must be secured or contained so that it:
    • will not, leak, spill, blow, fall from, fall through or otherwise become dislodged from the vehicle; or
    • shift upon or shift within the vehicle to such an extent that the vehicle's stability is adversely affected.
part 2 general provisions and requirements
Part 2 - General Provisions and Requirements
  • Context:
  • Foundation of standard - requirements that apply to all cargo
  • Establishes basic principles for compliance with standard:
    • use appropriate equipment to transport and secure cargo
    • contain or immobilize cargo to prevent shifting or tipping
general provisions
General Provisions
  • vehicle structures, floors, anchor points, headboards, bulkheads, stakes, posts, pockets must be strong enough
  • must use a securement method suited to the type, size and shape of cargo
  • tiedowns must be capable of being tightened by driver
  • tiedowns must be inside rub-rails
  • edge protection needed if tiedown could be cut or abraded
working load limit
Working Load Limit
  • The maximum load that may be applied to a component of a cargo securement system during normal service, usually assigned by the manufacturer of the component.
    • WLL incorporates safety factor; typically ratio of 3 or 4 to 1
    • limit which should not be exceeded,even with maximum forces from performance criteria
      • materials can be deformed or weakened
      • continued performance uncertain
blocking
Blocking
  • The aggregate working load limit of components used to block an article against forward movement must not be less than one-half the weight of the article
securement system strength rating
Securement System Strength Rating
  • The Working Load Limit (WLL) of a tiedown is the lowest WLL of:
    • any of its components
    • the anchor points
securement system strength rating37
Securement System Strength Rating

Working Load Limits

  • if marked by manufacturer with numeric limit;
    • WLL = limit
  • if marked by manufacturer in accordance with recognized standard (eg. code etc);
    • WLL = number provided by the standard
  • if unmarked by manufacturer; assigned default ratings
    • WLL = lowest grade or classification for the type and size of the component (Part 6 of standard)
securement system strength rating38
Securement System Strength Rating

Default WLL Values

  • Chain
  • Synthetic Webbing
  • Wire rope
  • Manila Rope
  • Synthetic Cordage
  • Steel Strapping
  • Friction Mats *
    • A friction mat shall be considered to provide resistance to horizontal movement equal to 50% of the weight of the cargo resting upon the mat.
securement system strength rating39
Securement System Strength Rating

Strength Rating

  • Longer Term~ the strength and/or load carrying capacity of components of cargo securement system must be known: no default ratings
  • Current Proposal ~provides default values for un-marked equipment
    • need time to phase in; work with manufacturers and carriers to develop implementation plan(s)
general requirements
General Requirements
  • Applies to all types of cargo, included those specifically identified in Part 3
    • if additional requirements are specified in Part 3, these take precedence
  • Need to satisfy one of three conditions:

1. fully contained by structures of adequate strength, or

2. immobilized by structures of adequate strength to prevent shifting or tipping, or

3. immobilized on or within a vehicle by appropriate means to prevent shifting or tipping

condition 1 fully contained
Condition 1: Fully Contained
  • cargo is fully contained by structures of adequate strength

Dump bodies

Tankers

condition 2 immobilized by structures
Condition 2: Immobilized by Structures
  • cargo is immobilized by vehicle structures of adequate strength to prevent shifting or tipping
condition 3 immobilized by other means
Condition 3: Immobilized by Other Means
  • immobilized on or within a vehicle by appropriate means to prevent shifting or tipping
articles of cargo
Articles of Cargo

Single articles: articles of cargo which can be secured individually

“Unitized” loads: grouping of individual articles in a manner or with devices which renders the group suitable for securement as an individual article

tiedowns
Tiedowns
  • the aggregate Working Load Limit of all tiedowns used to secure an article(s) must not be less than one-half the weight of the article(s)
direct tiedowns46
Direct Tiedowns
  • one half of the WLL of each direct tiedown that is connected between the vehicle and the article of cargo
  • the WLL of each direct tiedown that is attached to the vehicle, passes through or around and article, or is attached to it, and is again attached to the vehicle

Calculation of aggregate Working Load Limit; the sum of:

indirect tiedowns47
Indirect Tiedowns
  • Calculation of aggregate Working Load Limit;
    • sum of WLL of each tiedown

Each indirect tiedown which passes over an article will be considered to be one tiedown.

tiedown angles
Tiedown Angles
  • Direct Tiedown
    • maximum 45 degrees
  • Indirect Tiedown
    • minimum 30 degrees
indirect tiedowns minimum number required
Indirect TiedownsMinimum Number Required

Case 1: Cargo Blocked against forward movement by a headboard, bulkhead, other cargo which is also immobilized, or other appropriate blocking device

  • one tiedown assembly for every 3.04 meters (10 feet) of article length, or fraction thereof.
indirect tiedowns minimum number required50
Indirect TiedownsMinimum Number Required

Case 2: Cargo Not Blocked against forward movement

  • One tiedown assembly for articles up to 1.52 m (5 ft) in length and up to 500 kg (1100 lb) in weight
  • Two tiedown assemblies if the article is:
    • up to 1.52 m (5 ft) in length but over 500 kg (1100 lb)
    • longer than 1.52 m (5 ft) but less than or equal to 3.04 m (10 ft) in length
  • Two tiedown assemblies if the article is longer than 3.04 m (10 ft), and one additional tiedown assembly for every additional 3.04 m (10 ft) of article length, or part thereof, beyond the first 3.04 m (10 ft) of length.
indirect tiedown requirements
Indirect Tiedown Requirements

Tiedowns with forward blocking:

Tiedowns without forward blocking:

indirect tiedowns52
Indirect Tiedowns

Example 1: One article - 5 feet long

indirect tiedowns53
Indirect Tiedowns

Example 2: One article - 10 feet long

indirect tiedowns54
Indirect Tiedowns

Example 3: Two articles - each 10 feet long

inspection of securement systems
Inspection of Securement Systems
  • Driver must check cargo and securing devices:
    • within first 80 km (50 miles) of start of trip
    • periodically thereafter,
      • when duty status changes
      • after 3 hours or 240 km (150 miles)
  • Inspection not required by driver if:
    • vehicle is sealed and driver is not permitted to open it
    • inspection is impractical
slide56

Detailed

Sections

part 3 specific commodities
Part 3 - Specific Commodities

Specific additional securement requirements which take precedence over the general requirements:

  • Logs
  • Dressed Lumber
  • Metal Coils
  • Paper Rolls
  • Concrete Pipe
  • Intermodal Containers
  • Automobiles, Light Trucks & Vans
  • Heavy Vehicles, Equipment & Machinery
  • Crushed Vehicles
  • Roll-on/Roll-off Containers
  • Large Boulders
slide58
Logs

Applies to:

  • more than four fully processed logs
  • Shortwood:All logs typically up to 4.9 m (16 feet) long.
  • Longwood:All logs that are over 4.9 m (16 feet) long. (long logs or treelength).
logs general requirements
Logs - General Requirements
  • must use suitable vehicle
  • vehicle must have bunks, bolsters, stakes or standards to prevent logs from rolling
  • all tiedowns must have WLL no less than 1800 kg (4000 lb.)
logs securement requirements
Logs - Securement Requirements

Principles:

  • each outside log must touch at least two stakes, or be stabilized by other logs and extend beyond the end of the stake
  • highest outside log on each side must touch each stake (below the top of the stake)
logs securement requirements61
Logs - Securement Requirements
  • load must be “crowned”; with top logs restrained by indirect tiedowns
  • tiedowns must be tensioned as tightly as possible; additional tiedowns needed if logs are slippery or in low friction conditions
vehicle types
Vehicle Types

Section structured by vehicle type:

  • frame trucks
  • rail trucks and trailers
  • flatbed trucks and trailers
  • pole trailers
shortwood
Shortwood
  • Crosswise - one stack:
    • bottom logs must be supported by vehicle structure to within 30 cm of each end
    • two tiedowns required for each stack
    • if trailer over 10 m long, must be divided into two stacks
    • automatic tensioning device requirement proposed for future
shortwood64
Shortwood
  • Crosswise - two stacks
    • two stacks side by side on deck:
      • no space between stacks
      • outside edge of stacks must be elevated (2.5 cm)
      • minimum one tiedown over each stack
    • automatic tensioning device requirement proposed for future
longwood
Longwood
  • must be be restrained against lateral movement at two or more points (stakes, bunks, standards)
  • each outside log must be secured by at least two indirect tiedowns
  • Pole Trailers:
    • at least one tiedown required at each bunk, or
    • at least two tiedown “wrappers” around entire load
dressed lumber
Dressed Lumber

Applies to:

    • bundles of dressed lumber, packaged lumber, building products such as plywood, gypsum board or other materials of similar shape
  • Two situations:
    • without protective wrapping
    • with protective wrapping
dressed lumber without protective wrapping
Dressed Lumber - Without Protective Wrapping

One tier: general tiedown requirements apply

  • Blocked:
    • one indirect tiedown for every 3.04 meters (10 feet) of length, or fraction thereof
  • Not blocked:
    • one indirect tiedown for bundles up to 1.52 m (5 ft) long and up to 500 kg (1100 lb) in weight
    • two indirect tiedowns for bundles up to 1.52 m (5 ft) long and over 500 kg (1100 lb), or up to 3.04 m long
    • two indirect tiedowns if longer than 3.04 m (10 ft), plus one additional tiedown for every additional 3.04 m (10 ft).
multiple tiers no protective wrapping
Multiple Tiers - No Protective Wrapping

Options:

a) blocked against lateral movement by stakes on the sides of the vehicle and secured by indirect tiedowns laid out over the top tier, as outlined in the general provisions of the standard (section 2.2.4), or

b) restrained from lateral movement by blocking or high friction devices between tiers and secured by tiedowns laid out over the top tier, as outlined in the general provisions of the standard (section 2.2.4), or

multiple tiers no protective wrapping69
Multiple Tiers - No Protective Wrapping

c) placed directly on top of other bundles or on spacers. The stack of bundles must be:

  • secured by indirect tiedowns over the second tier of bundles, or at 1.85 m (6 ft) above the trailer deck, whichever is greater, or not over 1.85 m (6 ft) above the trailer deck for other multiple tiers in accordance with the general provisions of the standard (section 2.2.4), and
  • secured by indirect tiedowns over the top tier of bundles, in accordance with the general provisions of the standard (section 2.2.4) with a minimum of two tiedowns for bundle(s) longer than 1.52 m (5 ft), or
multiple tiers no protective wrapping70
Multiple Tiers - No Protective Wrapping

With lateral restraint

Without lateral restraint

multiple tiers no protective wrapping71
Multiple Tiers - No Protective Wrapping

d) Secured by indirect tiedowns laid out over each tier of bundles, in accordance with the general provisions of the standard (section 2.2.4) with a minimum of two tiedowns over each top bundle(s) longer than 1.52 m (5 ft), in all other circumstances.

multiple tiers with protective wrapping
Multiple Tiers - With Protective Wrapping
  • If covering material provides friction levels equivalent to product being covered - same requirements as uncovered bundles.
  • If covering material is low friction, same requirements as uncovered bundles except:
    • at least one of the indirect tiedowns on each bundle on the top tier must be chain.
metal coils
Metal Coils

Applies to:

  • the transportation of one or more metal coils which, individually or together, weigh 2268 kg (5000 pounds) or more
coil orientation
Coil Orientation

Eyes Vertical

Eyes Crosswise

Eyes Lengthwise

eyes vertical
Eyes Vertical
  • Must prevent tipping in all directions
    • at least three indirect tiedowns across top of coil:
      • one directly across top
      • two diagonally across
  • Must prevent shifting on vehicle
    • blocking, bracing or direct tiedown to prevent forward movement
eyes crosswise
Eyes Crosswise
  • Must prevent rolling:
    • cradle, timbers, chocks or wedges
  • Restraint:
    • at least two direct tiedowns through the eye
      • one to resist forward movement
      • one to resist rearward movement
eyes lengthwise
Eyes Lengthwise
  • Must prevent rolling - cradle, chocks, wedges etc
  • Must prevent forward movement by blocking, bracing or friction mats
  • Three restraining options:

Option 1 - Two direct tiedowns through the eye of the coil, plus one indirect tiedown over the top of the coil

eyes lengthwise78
Eyes Lengthwise

Option 2 - At least two direct tiedowns through the eye of the coil, plus one indirect tiedown over the top of the coil

Option 3 - At least two indirect tiedowns over the top of the coil

paper rolls
Paper Rolls

Applies to:

  • shipments of paper rolls which, individually or together, weigh 2268 kg (5000 lb) or more
paper rolls eyes vertical
Paper Rolls - Eyes Vertical
  • ideally, rolls should be placed up against trailer walls and against other rolls
  • blocking, friction mats, tiedowns or void fillers needed to prevent movement if rolls aren’t placed up against walls
  • need to prevent tipping by using bracing, banding with other rolls, or tiedowns if:
    • height is > 2 times the diameter (sideways)
    • height is > 1.25 times diameter (forward)
paper rolls eyes vertical81
Paper Rolls - Eyes Vertical
  • Full load
    • blocked at front by bulkhead
    • blocked laterally by walls
    • blocking required at rear
paper rolls eyes vertical82
Paper Rolls - Eyes Vertical
  • Split Loads:
    • prevent forward movement by blocking, friction mats, tiedowns or void fillers
paper rolls eyes vertical83
Paper Rolls - Eyes Vertical
  • Stacked Loads:
    • bottom layer must extend to front of vehicle
    • must prevent second and higher layers from shifting
      • place against walls, void fillers, blocking, bracing, friction mats
      • can also use “blocking” roll from lower layer if protrudes at least 50 mm (2 in)
paper rolls eyes horizontal
Paper Rolls - Eyes Horizontal

Stacked Loads:

  • bottom row must extend to front of vehicle
  • front and rear rolls on upper rows must be secured by banding to other rolls
  • Loaded Crosswise:
  • prevent rolling (forward & rearward)
  • by placing against walls or by using
  • chocks, wedges, blocking, or tiedowns
  • prevent sliding (sideways) by void
  • fillers, friction mats, blocking, tiedowns
paper rolls eyes horizontal85
Paper Rolls - Eyes Horizontal
  • Loaded Lengthwise
    • each roll must be blocked against movement:
      • forward: vehicle structure, other cargo, blocking or

tiedowns

      • rearward: other cargo, blocking, friction mats or tiedowns
    • prevent rolling (sideways) by placing against walls or by using chocks, wedges, blocking
  • Stacked Loads:
      • bottom row must be completely filled first
      • rolls on upper rows must also be secured against forward and rearward movement
concrete pipe
Concrete Pipe

Applies to:

  • the transportation of concrete pipe on a platform trailer or vehicle
concrete pipe87
Concrete Pipe
  • Blocking to prevent rolling:
  • Arranging the load:
    • pipe of different diameter - group same size pipes together
concrete pipe88
Concrete Pipe
  • Bottom tier:
    • cover full length of vehicle, or
    • arrange partial tier in one or two groups
concrete pipe89
Concrete Pipe
  • Upper tiers and top tier:
    • pipes placed in wells formed by tier below, no new tiers until all wells are filled
concrete pipe90
Concrete Pipe
  • Bell Pipe:
    • must be loaded on longitudinal spacers to raise bell above vehicle floor
    • one tier: bell ends must alternate
    • multiple tiers: bell ends must be on the same side in each row, and alternate between rows
concrete pipe91
Concrete Pipe

Pipe Diameter Up to 1143 mm (45 in)

  • stabilizing the bottom tier
    • must be contained longitudinally by vehicle structure, stakes, blocking, a locked pipe unloader or other means
    • chain direct tiedowns must be used through the first and last pipes
concrete pipe92
Concrete Pipe

Pipe Diameter Up to 1143 mm (45 in)

Tiedowns:

  • if each pipe is not secured with a tiedown:
    • two indirect tiedowns must be used lengthwise over the group of pipes
    • one transverse tiedown must be used for every 3.0 m of load length
concrete pipe93
Concrete Pipe

Pipe Diameter Up to 1143 mm (45 in)

concrete pipe94
Concrete Pipe

Pipe Diameter Over 1143 mm (45 in)

  • front and rear pipes must be secured by blocking
  • each pipe must be secured by direct tiedowns through the pipe
  • two direct tiedowns must be used in the front and/or rear pipe if they are not in contact with vehicle end structure, stakes, a locked pipe loader or other appropriate blocking
intermodal containers
Intermodal Containers

Applies to:

  • the transportation of intermodal containers
  • cargo inside container must also meet securement requirements of standard
intermodal containers96
Intermodal Containers

On Container Chassis:

  • must be secured to the container chassis with securement devices or integral locking devices that cannot unintentionally become unfastened while the vehicle is in transit. The securement devices must restrain the container from moving more than 1.27 cm (1/2 in) forward, more than 1.27 cm (1/2 in) aft, more than 1.27 cm (1/2 in) to the right, more than 1.27 cm (1/2 in) to the left, or more than 2.54 cm (1 in) vertically.
  • the front and rear of the container must be secured independently
intermodal containers97
Intermodal Containers

On Flatdeck Vehicles (ie. not chassis)

  • All lower corners of the intermodal container must rest upon the vehicle, or the corners must be supported by a structure capable of bearing the weight of the container and that support structure must be independently secured to the motor vehicle.
  • All lower corners of intermodal containers must be secured to the vehicle by chains, wire ropes, or integral locking devices. The front and rear of the container must be secured independently.
  • Each chain, wire rope, or integral locking device must be attached to the container in a manner that prevents it from being unintentionally unfastened while the vehicle is in transit.
automobiles light trucks vans
Automobiles, Light Trucks & Vans

Applies to:

  • the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4500 kg. (10,000 lb) or less
automobiles light trucks vans99
Automobiles, Light Trucks & Vans
  • must be restrained at both the front and rear in the lateral, forward, rearward, and vertical direction using a minimum of two direct tiedowns.
  • direct tiedowns that are designed to be affixed to the structure of the automobile, light truck, or van shall use the mounting points on those vehicles that have been specifically designed for that purpose.
  • direct tiedowns that are designed to fit over or around the wheels of an automobile, light truck, or van shall provide restraint in the lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions. Edge protectors are not required for synthetic webbing at points where the webbing comes in contact with the tires
heavy vehicles equipment machinery
Heavy Vehicles, Equipment & Machinery

Applies to:

  • the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front end loaders, bulldozers, tractors, and power shovels and which individually weigh 4500 kg. (10,000 lb) or more
heavy vehicles equipment machinery101
Heavy Vehicles, Equipment & Machinery

With crawler tracks or wheels:

    • restrained in the lateral, forward, rearward, and vertical direction using a minimum of four direct tiedowns each having a working load limit of at least 2268 kg. (5000 pounds); and,
    • blocked against forward movement.
  • The direct tiedowns shall be affixed at the front and rear of the vehicle, or mounting points on the vehicle that have been specifically designed for that purpose.
  • The tiedowns shall be pretensioned in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions.
flattened or crushed cars
Flattened or Crushed Cars

Applies to:

  • the transportation of vehicles such as automobiles, light trucks, and vans which have been flattened or crushed
flattened or crushed cars103
Flattened or Crushed Cars
  • Flattened or crushed vehicles must be transported in such a manner that:
      • the cargo does not shift upon the transport vehicle while in transit, and
      • loose parts from the flattened vehicles do not become dislodged and fall from the transport vehicle.
  • The use of synthetic webbing to secure flattened or crushed vehicles is prohibited.
flattened or crushed cars104
Flattened or Crushed Cars

Securement options:

1. have structural walls on four sides which extend to the full height of the load which extend to the height of the load and which block against movement of the cargo in the forward, rearward and lateral directions; or,

2. have structural walls on three sides which extend to the full height of the load and which block against movement of the cargo in the forward, rearward and one lateral direction. In addition a minimum of two indirect tiedowns are required per vehicle stack with every tiedown having a minimum working load limit 2268 kg (5000 pounds); or,

flattened or crushed cars105
Flattened or Crushed Cars

3. have structural walls on two sides which extend to the full height of the load and which block against movement of the cargo in the forward and rearward directions. In addition a minimum of three indirect tiedowns are required per vehicle stack with every tiedown having a minimum working load limit 2268 kg (5000 pounds); or,

4. which employ a minimum of four indirect tiedowns per vehicle stack with every tiedown having a minimum working load limit 2268 kg (5000 pounds)

flattened or crushed cars106
Flattened or Crushed Cars

Containment of loose parts:

  • must employ a containment system which prevents loose parts from falling from all four sides of the vehicle and which extends to the full height of the cargo. This system can be based on use of structural walls, sides or sideboards, or suitable covering material, alone or in combinations.
  • the use of synthetic material for containment of loose parts is permitted.
roll on roll off containers
Roll-on/Roll-off Containers

Applies to:

  • the transportation of roll-on/roll-off and hook lift containers
roll on roll off containers108
Roll-on/Roll-off Containers

Securement requirements:

Front:

  • lifting device and stops

Rear: within two metres of rear of container, one of:

  • one indirect tiedown that secures the side rails of the vehicle chassis and the container chassis at the same time; or
  • two tiedowns installed lengthwise, each securing one side of the container to one of the vehicle's side rails; or
  • two hooks, or an equivalent mechanism, securing both sides of the container to the vehicle chassis at least as effectively as the tiedowns in the two previous items.
large boulders
Large Boulders

Applies to:

    • the transport of large piece(s) of rock weighing in excess of 5 000 kg (11,000 lb.) or with a volume in excess of 2 cubic-meters on an open vehicle, or in a vehicle whose sides are not designed and rated to contain such cargo.
  • must be supported on at least two pieces of hard wood blocking (at least 10 cm x 10 cm (4' x 4") nominal side dimensions) extending the full width of the boulder.
  • if no flat side, must be placed in a crib to prevent rolling.
cubic shaped boulders
Cubic Shaped Boulders
  • secured individually with at least two chain tiedowns used transversely across the vehicle.
  • aggregate WLL of the tiedowns must be at least half the weight of the boulder.
irregular shaped stable base
Irregular Shaped - Stable Base
  • secured individually with at least two chain tiedowns used transversely across the vehicle.
  • aggregate WLL of the tiedowns must be at least half the weight of the boulder.
  • tiedowns must pass over the center of the boulder and must be attached to the center
irregular shaped unstable base
Irregular Shaped - Unstable Base

Combination of chains required:

  • One chain must be used to surround the top of the boulder (between 1/2 and 2/3 of the height). The WLL of the chain must be at least half the weight of the boulder.
  • Four chain tiedowns must be attached to the surrounding chain and the platform to form a blocking mechanism which prevents any horizontal movement. Each chain must have a WLL of at least 1/4 the weight of the boulder. The angle of the chain must not exceed 45 degrees from the horizontal.
part 4 definitions
Part 4 - Definitions
  • common definitions seen as critical to uniform implementation and interpretation
  • attempt to include all key terms included in proposed model regulation
part 5 referenced standards
Part 5 - Referenced Standards

References:

  • Vehicle Structure
  • Anchor Points
  • Platform Bodies (Flatdecks)
  • Van, Sided & Dump Bodies
  • Tiedowns
  • Webbing Assemblies
  • Chain Assemblies
  • Wire Rope and Attachments
  • Synthetic Rope and Attachments
  • Strapping
  • Clamps and Latches
part 6 default working load limits
Part 6: Default Working Load Limits

Example - Unmarked Chain

Size Working Load Limit

7 mm (1/4 in) 590 kg (1300 lb)

8 mm (5/16 in) 860 kg (1900 lb)

10 mm (3/8 in) 1200 kg (2650 lb)

11 mm (7/16 in) 1590 kg (3500 lb)

13 mm (1/2 in) 2040 kg (4500 lb)

16 mm (5/8 in) 3130 kg (6900 lb)

part 6 default working load limits116
Part 6: Default Working Load Limits

Example - Unmarked Synthetic Webbing

Width WLL

45 mm (1-3/4 in) 790 kg (1750 lb)

50 mm (2 in) 910 kg (2000 lb)

75 mm (3 in) 1360 kg (3000 lb)

100 mm (4 in) 1810 kg (4000 lb)

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Proposed standard represents significant departure from format of most current requirements:
    • broader scope
    • greater precision
    • less interpretation required
  • Proposed requirements do not imply major changes for most commodities:
    • clarification of general requirements
current process
Current Process

Validation:

  • consultation on proposed standard
  • seek reaction of Canadian jurisdictions and stakeholders to proposal:
    • acceptability as new standard
    • outstanding issues which require resolution
  • consolidate reaction, reconvene to address concerns

Prospect:

  • Uniform standard throughout North America
    • adopted by reference, maintained jointly