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         Standard American           EnglishPronunciation

         Standard American           EnglishPronunciation . Part 3 Lee Winters, MD, MBA Senior Professor Northwestern Polytechnic University. Voiced and Voiceless Consants in SAE. Voiceless Voiced They're already crowing                They're already growing.

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         Standard American           EnglishPronunciation

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  1.          Standard American           EnglishPronunciation Part 3 Lee Winters, MD, MBA Senior Professor Northwestern Polytechnic University

  2. Voiced and Voiceless Consants in SAE VoicelessVoiced They're already crowing                They're already growing. Where's the train?                         Where's the drain? Have you no pride?                        Have you no bride? Is it cream?                                     Is it green? There's a trunk in the street.          There's a drunk in the street. You should praise them.                You should braise them.

  3. Voiced and Voiceless Consants in SAE VoicelessVoiced Please try it.                                  Please dry it. It's pressed meat.                          It's breast meat. It's a land crab.                              It's a land grab. The class was large                      The glass was large. It was planned.                               It was bland. Do you have any clue?                  Do you have any glue?

  4. Voiced and Voiceless Consants in SAE VoicelessVoiced They're pleading too much.          They're bleeding too much. They're light clothes.                    Their light glows. It's an ugly plot.                             It's an ugly blot. Please be quiet. He left quickly.

  5. Fricative [r] after [d] and [t] in SAE /r/ after /t/ and /d/ in SAE is fricative. This means that the tongue pulls away from the roof of the mouth. The tongue tip should not go back up and hit the tooth ridge again. Compare these words.     chain       train        drain        Jane     chip         trip          drip          gyp      chill         trill           drill          Jill     chew       true          drew       Jew

  6. Vowel Length and Final Consonants  Stressed vowels are lengthened before final voiced consonants. This is especially noticeable in one-syllable words such as bag and live. When you lengthen these vowels, relax and flatten the tongue, moving in the direction of the schwa sound with the tongue in the center of the mouth. Live and live should not sound like leave and leaf.

  7. Vowel Length and Final Consonants  Voiceless ConsonantsVoiced Consonants short preceding vowel              long preceding vowel cup                            cub         bed                            beg         plate                          played         pick                           pig         leaf                            leave         lift                              lived

  8.     Vowel Length and Final Consonants  Voiceless ConsonantsVoiced Consonants short preceding vowel                    long preceding vowel         proof                            prove        teeth                            teethe         loss                              laws         rich                               ridge         backs                           bags         raced                           raised

  9. Lengthening Voiced or No Consonant Voiceless Consonant        No Consonant or Voiced Consonant short syllable                        long syllable              think                                  thing             lamp                               lamb             can't                               can             felt                                  fell             short                               shore             sent                                 send             lunch                               lunge             plants                              plans             bumps                             bums             false                                falls             heart                                hard

  10. Changing Vowel Length and Quality of the Final Consonant VoicelessVoiced Please take this back                   Please take this bag Has he used his bet?                   Has he used his bed?  I need a cap.                                I need a cab. Where are your plants?               Where are your plans? Give him a cart.                            Give him a card. You can't take your pick.              You can't take your pig. She's going to sink.                      She's going to sing. I wish I had blue ice.                     I wish I had blue eyes. I found ten bucks.                         I found ten bugs. How much have they spent?        How much did they spend?

  11. Changing Vowel Length and Quality of the Final Consonant  VoicelessVoiced  It was a wonderful safe                It was a wonderful save.  Are those baby teeth?                  Do those babies teethe?  What happened to his lamps?      What happened to his lambs?  He made a nice batch.                 He made a nice badge.  They lift over there.                      They lived over there.  He let them in.                              He led them in.  How many laps did he run?          How many labs did he run?  They often duck behind his car.   They often dug behind his car.  Only two seats are left.                 Only two seeds are left.

  12. [l] and [r] We couldn't break the lock     We couldn't break the rock She broke the lock.                 She broke the rock. They gave us the long one.    They gave us the wrong one. The colonel refused to flee the city.                                    The colonel refused to free the city.  It disappeared into the cloud.    It disappeared into the crowd. He dropped it on the glass.       He dropped it on the grass. Put out the files.                        Put out the fires.

  13. [l]  and  [r] I don't want to be the one to collect the papers. I don't want to be the one to correct the papers. We walked into the long hallway. We walked into the wrong hallway. When you're done with the paper, toss it into the file. When you're done with the paper, toss it into the fire.

  14. Affixes and Stress Shift Gereralization: When suffixes like -ity, -ar/al, -cal, and -tion are added to words, stress may move toward the end of the words. Note the change from one part of speech to another when the suffix is added.    adjective          noun                 verb                  noun    stupid              stupiddity          generate            generation    responsible     responsibility     liberate              liberation    active              activity               imagine             imagination    capable           capability           demonstrate     demonstration    sensitive          sensitivity          educate            education    sensible           sensibility          operate             operation    relative             relativity            organize           organization

  15. Clusters with [s] and [z]  sleep        Spain        stick        small       strike         spring slight        speed        stay        smoke     stress        spread slip           speak        square    snack      string         scratch slow         spend        squeak    sweep     straw         scream slap          spoon        squall      swat        strange      scrape     laughs         rats             lacks           priced        lists     chiefs          cheats        drinks          east           costs     lamps          hunts          links            cost            tastes     hips             prince         strikes         taste          wastes     listens         deals           bases         takes          ranges

  16. Practice [ey], long a sound bathe        take            safely        bait            date      shade waited        make         same         ballet         age        taste Amy            base        range          tail             gate      waste Jay            made         shame         baste        lanes      wait faces        names        great            bait          lace        rake paints        change      crazy            blade        mate      fray maid          race           braid            chase        paste     pay

  17. Pronunciation of <oo> 1. That would be a good book to read for school. 2. The butcher is a good bone cook. 3. You should put more sugar in the pudding. 4. The crook stood behind some bushes. 5. Could I put my foot on that cushion? 6. No one in my neighborhood understood the old     Greek woman. 7. That's a good-looking wool pullover you gave me.

  18. Pronunciation of <oo> 1. Luke looks terrible. 2. This shoe should fit. 3. Cook it and then let it cool. 4. You could hear the birds coo all night. 5. It's foolish not to have a full tank of fuel. 6. They serve really good food at the Moon Room Cafe. 7. He hid his wool socks in his brother's boots.

  19. Vowels /u/ and /uw/  1. The doctor pulled Luke's loose tooth. 2. The student took her ruler out of her bookbag. 3. This jar couldn't be full of stewed fruit. 4. Bruce goes to school on Tuesdays. 5. Mary wouldn't open her looseleaf binder. 6. Sue glued the hook to the side of the pool. 7. Duke's group was full of ideas for the party.

  20. Same Spelling, Different Pronunciation 1. It's natural for kids to love nature. 2. There was a story on the national news about the United Nations. 3. She took a bath after sun bathing for two hours. 4. The metric system measures length in meters. 5. Many athletes get athletic scholarships to attend college. 6. Take a deep breath and then breathe out slowly. 7. I didn't know he had so much knowledge about computers.

  21. Same Spelling, Different Pronunciation 8. You could make some beautiful clothes with that cloth. 9. Do I sign my own name or get someone else's signature? 10. Certain types of plants are typically grown indoors. 11. The producers thought the cost of production was too high. 12. A person who comes from the South is called a Southerner. 13. He put a yellow bow on the bow of the ship. 14. She'll have a tear in her eye when we tear down the gym.

  22. Vowel Change 1. It was a loud shirt                    It was a loud shot. 2. Her curler is dirty                    Her collar is dirty. 3. They're really hurt.                  They're really hot. 4. What a beautiful birdie.            What a beautiful body. 5. Where's the curtain?                Where's the cotton? 6. It was her fate.                          It was her fight.

  23. Vowels followed by [r]  When vowels are folowed by <r>, their quality changes. Many Americans make no difference between pore, pour, and poor. It is best to think of the <r> as a vowel that blends together with the preceding vowel to form a diphthong in words like hair, here, hire. Fire and fear sound like they have two syllables. In far and four the sounds blend together more. The words fir and fur are made without moving your tongue so it sounds like one vowel sound.

  24. Vowel Reduction     Stressed Full Vowel                    Unstressed Reduced Vowel             ball                                                       balloon             mare                                                     maroon             fast                                                       breakfast             feast                                                     fest             late                                                       chocolate             pepper                                                  pauper             men                                                      women             grid                                                       grud             social                                                    society             recorder                                                a record             bare                                                      burr

  25. Syllables  I was never hungry when I travelled to Hungary. Please do what the police say. They cut fiscal expenditures for physical education. Who's the Senator sitting in the center? Did they fix it or did it not need to be fixed? The audience claps when the tables collapse. He plays the organ in a church in Oregon.

  26. Changing Syllable Number  Are you quite sure the children were quiet? She was livid when she found out he lived with another woman. She wrote about her visit to the dairy in her diary My niece went on a diet. He reacted strangely when he reached the end of the novel. Every individual is unique. The officials appreciated everyone's cooperation.

  27. Changing Syllable Number  This suit is made of 100% genuine silk. Space exploration started in the Soviet Union. We must respond immediately to the situation. You need to punctuate correctly and avoid using abbreviations. Her answer was both ambiguous and inappropriate. Is creativity encouraged in our society?

  28. Word Stress Changes  The mystery was solved in a mysterious way. The movie terrified the children, but the teenagers thought it was terriffic. Many refugees have found refuge in this country. It's possible he'll pass this course, but there's no possibility of his getting an A. How large is the magnetic field of this magnate? Those cookies are perfect; they're cooked to perfection.

  29. Word Stress Changes  I am confident that they will not release this confidential information. Congratulations! I congratulate you on a job well done. A mountaineer is a person who climbs mountains. How many physicians have studied physics? The cars were widely publicized, but the publicity didn't improve sales. You need an electrician to repair the electrical wiring.

  30. Word Stress Changes  He didn't qualify for the job because his qualifications weren't good enough. Many psychologists use psychological tests. Commerce has become very commercial. Memorizing the rules will help your memory. We will locate the business in an urban location. The critic wrote the worst critique of his career.

  31. Disappearing Syllables interesting                               aspirin temperature                            beverage favorable                                comfortable miserable                                reasonable pleasurable                             vegetable laboratory                                evening elementary                              chocolate documentary                           family separate (adj.)                         naturally deliberate (adj.)                       generally favorite                                    accidentially different                                   awfully restaurant                                physically practiclly                                  economically

  32. Linking Words  It's_an_apple.                             May_I_ask? Come_in.                                    Do_I know_her?      It's_all_over.                               I'll wear_i. I give_up.                                    Did you see_her?      He made_a mess.                      They_owe_him money.       Cook_a meal.                             I_always tie_it.    He robbed_a bank.                     His blue_eyes were_open.     She baked_a cake.                     Where_is the_office?     She loves_him.                            Keep_talking.      He likes_her.                               You laugh_too much. Where does_the bus_stop?         I like_black_cats. What_time will you eat_tonight?       His_vacation was_terrible.          Don't_stop_driving.

  33. Compound Noun Stress Changes  It's a paper clip                       It's a paper bag. I want an orange shirt             I want some orange juice. It's a fire engine.                     It's a fine engine. They're snow shoes.              They're new shoes. Its a diamond ring.                  It's a wedding ring. It's an enormous building.       It's an apartment building. That's a defective story.         That's a detective story. I need a light bulb.                  I need a large bulb. He lives on a main road.         He lives on Main Street. That's drinking water.             They're drinking water.

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