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North American Cargo Securement Standard Report to the Vehicle Safety and Inspection Committee August 2001. Towards A Uniform North American Cargo Securement Standard. Goal:

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north american cargo securement standard www ab org ccmta ccmta htm

North American Cargo Securement

Report to the Vehicle Safety and Inspection Committee

August 2001

towards a uniform north american cargo securement standard
Towards A Uniform North American Cargo Securement Standard


  • a performance based cargo securement standard which can be uniformly implemented and applied throughout North America


  • joint effort, open discussion and collaboration between governments and stakeholders from Canada and United States
  • Research program to address problems with cargo securement developed by Ontario MTO in early ‘90’s
  • Research conducted under sponsorship and direction of joint Canada - U.S., public-private partnership
  • Research & testing completed in early 1997
  • Findings delivered to joint Canada/United States committee to support development of new regulations
standard development organization
Standard Development - Organization


Council of Deputy Ministers of Transportation

United States

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration


Secretaria de

Comunicaciones Y




North American Standard Harmonization Committee


Open to all public & private stakeholders

and other interested parties

standards harmonization committee
Standards Harmonization Committee
  • open membership
  • nine meetings held from 1996 to spring 1999
  • broad participation from both governments and industry
    • federal, state and provincial governments
    • trucking industry
    • shippers
    • equipment manufacturers
meeting results
Meeting Results
  • Performance Criteria ~ the fundamental basis for cargo securement requirements
  • Format of standard ~ review of existing regulations and models used in other countries
  • Evolutionary process ~ variety of expectations
    • simple standard: clear, usable and enforceable
    • practical guide: advice based on research and testing results
meeting results1
Meeting Results

Convergence to consensus

  • agreement on scope and application of standard
  • agreement on performance criteria
  • agreement on framework for standard:
    • general requirements which apply to all cargo
    • specific requirements for commodities which pose high risk or challenges to securement
  • agreement on list of specific commodities
north american standard
North American Standard
  • development of a “model” regulation which can be implemented throughout North America
  • ultimate vision of standard in two parts:
    • “Model Regulation” ~ the regulatory aspects of the proposed standard
    • “The Guide” ~ elaboration on the regulations, what’s required, what’s good practice, basis for training programs
standard development milestones
Standard Development - Milestones
  • Standards Harmonization Committee formed
  • Research program completed
  • Agreement on format of standard; first draft model regulation tabled
  • Model Regulation Draft 3 completed; Canadian stakeholder consultation
  • Draft Model Regulation completed & committee disbanded
  • FMCSA issues Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

Spring 1996:

December 1997:

May 1998:

January 1999:

May 1999:

December 2000:

standard development milestones1
Standard Development - Milestones
  • CVSA/CCMTA convene meeting of US stakeholders
  • Deadline for comments on Proposed Rulemaking
  • Final rule expected to be issued by FMCSA with implementation 1 year later

February 2001:

March 2001:

Fall 2001:





guiding principle
Guiding Principle
  • public safety requires that cargo being transported on the highway system must remain on or within the transporting vehicle under all conditions which could reasonably be expected to occur in normal driving and when a driver is responding to emergency situations, short of a crash.
performance criteria
Performance Criteria


(bumps, rough roads)



braking in reverse)





performance criteria implications
Performance Criteria - Implications

- the cargo must be secured in a manner which prevents it from falling from, or shifting on, the vehicle when subjected to the forces which would occur with the “performance criteria”

- vehicle structures and attachments must be strong enough to supply the necessary restraining forces

~ bulkheads, walls, floors, anchor points etc

- the securing equipment must be strong enough to supply the necessary restraining forces

~ tiedowns, chains, ratchets, binders, etc

contained cargo
Contained Cargo

Cargo is contained and secured by the vehicle structure, additional securing devices not needed:

~ liquids in tankers,

~ bulk solids in tankers or dump boxes, ~ general freight in van trailers or containers

blocked cargo
Blocked Cargo

Cargo is restrained against movement in at least one direction by vehicle structures, such as headboards or bulkheads, or other cargo.

attached cargo direct tiedowns
Attached Cargo - Direct Tiedowns

Cargo is restrained by tie-downs which are attached to both the vehicle and the cargo.

attached cargo direct attachment
Attached Cargo - Direct Attachment

Cargo is attached to vehicle by locking devices, twist locks other integral locking systems. Friction between the load and the loading deck is not relied upon for cargo restraint.

model regulation outline
Model Regulation - Outline

Part 1 -Application and Objectives

Part 2 - General Provisions and Requirements

Part 3 - Specific Securement Requirements by Commodity Type

Part 4 - Definitions

Part 5 - Referenced Standards

Part 6 - Default Working Load Limits

part 1 application and objectives
Part 1 - Application and Objectives
  • Applies to any motor vehicle in excess of 4500 kg (10,000 lb)
  • Cargo must be secured or contained so that it:
    • will not, leak, spill, blow, fall from, fall through or otherwise become dislodged from the vehicle; or
    • shift upon or shift within the vehicle to such an extent that the vehicle's stability is adversely affected.
part 2 general provisions and requirements
Part 2 - General Provisions and Requirements
  • Context:
  • Foundation of standard - requirements that apply to all cargo
  • Establishes basic principles for compliance with standard:
    • use appropriate equipment to transport and secure cargo
    • contain or immobilize cargo to prevent shifting or tipping
general requirements
General Requirements
  • Applies to all types of cargo, including those specifically identified in Part 3
    • if additional requirements are specified in Part 3, these take precedence
  • Need to satisfy one of three conditions:

1. fully contained by structures of adequate strength, or

2. immobilized by structures of adequate strength to prevent shifting or tipping, or

3. immobilized on or within a vehicle by appropriate means to prevent shifting or tipping

general provisions
General Provisions
  • vehicle structures, floors, anchor points, headboards, bulkheads, stakes, posts, pockets must be strong enough
  • must use a securement method suited to the type, size and shape of cargo
  • tiedowns must be capable of being tightened by driver
  • tiedowns must be inside rub-rails
  • edge protection needed if tiedown could be cut or abraded
part 3 specific commodities
Part 3 - Specific Commodities

Specific additional securement requirements which take precedence over the general requirements:

  • Logs
  • Dressed Lumber
  • Metal Coils
  • Paper Rolls
  • Concrete Pipe
  • Intermodal Containers
  • Automobiles, Light Trucks & Vans
  • Heavy Vehicles, Equipment & Machinery
  • Crushed Vehicles
  • Roll-on/Roll-off Containers
  • Large Boulders
securement system strength rating
Securement System Strength Rating

Default WLL Values

  • Chain
  • Synthetic Webbing
  • Wire rope
  • Manila Rope
  • Synthetic Cordage
  • Steel Strapping
  • Friction Mats *
    • A friction mat shall be considered to provide resistance to horizontal movement equal to 50% of the weight of the cargo resting upon the mat.
fmcsa proposed rule
Includes majority of principles and requirements of Model Regulation

Docket Number 2289 at

Key differences:

structure and format differs from Model Regulation ~ rewritten and recast as amendments to existing US regulations; rules for specific commodities proposed in “question and answer” format

does not include minimum or maximum acceptable angles for tiedowns

does not propose to require testing and marking of strength of anchor points, tiedowns or other securement or blocking devices

FMCSA Proposed Rule
us stakeholder meeting february 2001
US Stakeholder Meeting - February 2001


  • Significance of proposed uniform North American Standard and the unprecedented international government/industry cooperation
  • Importance of maintaining ongoing cooperative mechanism for interpretation, maintenance and amendments to standard
  • Need to ensure an orderly and adequate implementation strategy
  • Need to eliminate the distinction between direct and indirect tiedowns and to provide clear guidance on determining aggregate working load limit of tiedown systems
  • Need to recognize and accept conditions under which movement of cargo (shifting) does not compromise public safety
  • Need to continue development of a orderly strategy to eliminate default working load limits for unmarked components of cargo securement systems
comments to docket us rulemaking
Comments to Docket - US Rulemaking
  • Approximately 100 submissions received by March 19 deadline
  • Reaction mixed ~ general support for uniformity
  • Major concerns:
    • difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect tiedowns (fear of inconsistent interpretation)
    • language in NPRM implying cargo cannot shift under any circumstances
    • implementation date - propose 18 to 24 months delay to allow for implementation and training
implications for canada
Implications for Canada
  • NPRM indicates that form and content of Model Regulation cannot be adopted by US
  • FMCSA NPRM represents new proposed North American Standard if uniformity to be achieved, but
  • Final form of proposal will not be known until FMCSA responds to comments with Final Rulemaking
    • final rule is “final” ~ cannot be changed without restarting rulemaking process
  • Canadian jurisdictions and stakeholders will have to judge acceptability of US proposal when issued later this year
  • Implementation date - most likely 2002
next steps
Next Steps
  • Wait for final rule to be issued by Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
  • Canadian Provinces will
    • consider acceptability of US rule for adoption in Canada
    • develop implementation strategy to coincide with US
    • Consider options if final US rule not acceptable
training program background
Training Program - Background
  • Fall 1999 - Training Committee formed; funding assembled
  • Spring 2000 - Terms of Reference for training program completed
  • Summer 2000 - Request for proposals issued & consultant selected
  • Winter 2000/01 - Training program developed based on requirements of Model Regulation
training program funding
Training Program Funding
  • 23 agencies or organizations contributed funding for training (13 Canadian, 10 United States)
  • Assembled to date ~ $180,000 (Canadian)
  • Expenditures to date ~ $ 135,000
training program
Training Program


  • Based on Model Regulation - May 1999
  • Focus on development of a training course (2 days) comprising:
    • instructors manual
    • participants manual
    • slides to accompany instructors manual
    • video to accompany/supplement training materials
    • driver handbook
organization modular
Organization - Modular

North American

Cargo Securement Training

Module #1: Fundamentals of Cargo Securement

Module #2: Standard Application, General Provisions and Requirements

General Securement Requirement

Module #3: Logs

Module#4: Dressed Lumber

Module #5: Metal Coils

Module #6: Paper Rolls

Module #7: Concrete Pipe

Module #8: Intermodal Containers

Commodity Specific Requirement

Module #9: Automobiles, Trucks & Vans

Module #10: Heavy Vehicles, Equipment and Machinery

Module #11: Flattened or Crushed Vehicles

Module #12: Roll-on/Roll-off Containers

Module #13: Large Boulders

  • Drafts completed:
    • instructor manual
    • accompanying slides
    • participant manual
    • driver handbook
  • Initial draft script for accompanying video
    • video shooting not yet initiated
training program1
Training Program
  • Status:
    • work on hold pending final rulemaking by FMCSA
    • revisions may be necessary to all draft materials, depending upon content of final rule
    • review required by Steering Committee and industry experts
next steps1
Next Steps
  • Review training program materials to identify necessary changes
    • complete training materials and video (~ 3- 4 months)
  • Proposed standard represents significant departure from format of most current requirements:
    • broader scope
    • greater precision
    • less interpretation required
  • Proposed requirements do not imply major changes for most commodities:
    • clarification of general requirements