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Social Movements in India

Social Movements in India. An Analytical Framework . Nature of Social Reality. Multiple Social and Cultural Identities Hierarchical and Complex historical relations Unequal distribution of Resources and Power . What is a Social Movement.

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Social Movements in India

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  1. Social Movements in India An Analytical Framework Beyond Globalization - CSM

  2. Nature of Social Reality • Multiple Social and Cultural Identities • Hierarchical and Complex historical relations • Unequal distribution of Resources and Power Beyond Globalization - CSM

  3. What is a Social Movement • Hegemony and Contestation of various stakeholders in a given social, cultural, economic and historical context of relations • An organized response to Rising Social Conflicts emerging from Social Contradictions • Political and Social Mobilization for staking claim to power or material resources Beyond Globalization - CSM

  4. What do Social Movements try to Achieve • Renegotiate power relation • Reform/Transform the social structure • Mediate between social and political space through a policy framework • Catalyze a new class/social consensus • Ignite emancipative spark for subjugated peoples • Reorient policy from Managerial to Democratic and from exclusive to inclusive process Beyond Globalization - CSM

  5. Social Determinants of Movements • Class Nature of Leaders, actors and stakeholders • Degree of political consciousness of movement leaders, actors and stakeholders • Political and Social context that can allow flexibility and mobility of relations among social sections • Economic relations among conflicting classes Beyond Globalization - CSM

  6. Notions of Social Change in India Pre-Colonial Processes Post-Colonial Processes Reaction Resistance/Dissent Reform Disagreement Engagement/Dialog Democratization Mass Mobilization Conscientization Radical Transformation • Dissent • Defiance • Disobedience • Self-infliction • Shaming/honor • Renunciation • Ultimate Truth • Transcendence • Individual Path Beyond Globalization - CSM

  7. Analytical Framework for Understanding Process of Change • Chronological Frame Work • Non-Partisan (Grass Roots) Political Framework – • Historical- Materialist and Dialectical Framework • Narratives of various movements and their linear growth • Description of numerous micro social actions weak in direct/dialectical relation to macro processes • Growing Class contradictions shaping the historical forces of change Beyond Globalization - CSM

  8. Movement in Chronological Framework • Post contact processes for social reform and re-organizing social relationship • Based on Primordial Identities • Large Scale sectoral mobilization having direct Influence on Macro-political processes • Demand for democratic inclusion, social justice and political space -shaping and transforming the social relations continuously • 19th Century Reform movements against Sati, Brahminic dominance, ritualism, enlightenment/westernism • Early 20th Century Nationalist Movement, Khilaphat, Muslim League, Dalit Movement, Linguistic Minorities, Regional Nationalities, Ethnic Minorities • Late 20th century Movements by/for various Castes, Cultural identities, Regional & Religious groups, nationalities, women etc for social justice, equity and political rights • 21st Century movements contention for direct political power in Bourgeois politics, resistance to neo-liberal dispossession, environmentalism, as well as movements from classes loosing privileges Beyond Globalization - CSM

  9. Some Important Actors • Ram Mohan Roy, VidhyaSagar, JyotiraoFule, Perriyar • Tagore, Gandhi, Arbindo, Anne Besent, Dadabhai, M N Roy • Ambedkar, Jinha, Nehru, JaiprakashNarayan, Vinoba, Lohia • Mayavati, Tikkait, Lalu & Mulayam • Medha, Bahuguna, Anna Hazare … Beyond Globalization - CSM

  10. Grass Root / Non Partisan Framework • Plural, Diverse and Dispersed • Micro Social Actions outside the Party Political framework • Contention for Political Space but NOT for Political Power • Empowerment through RIGHTS & ENTITLEMENTS • Identifies with issue and revolves around charismatic leadership • Short Lifespan and weak institutionalization • Anti-Dam, Anti-Dowary, Anti- Nuclear, For Animal Rights, Consumer Rights, Homo sexuality, HIV, disabled etc. rights….. • Coalition of Networks, Mobilization/Resistance and Solidarity Groups, • International Advocacy, National Policy Pressure Groups, Lobbyists, Local Networks contributing to define the discourse • Expansion of Civil & Political Rights to Cultural and Environment Justice Beyond Globalization - CSM

  11. Some Examples • Narmada Bachao Movement – Medha • Chipko Movement – SunderlalBahuguna • Right to Information - Arunaroy • Anti- Corruption Movement - Anna Hazare • Anti-LPG movements in various parts of country under multiple leadership Beyond Globalization - CSM

  12. Dialectical-Historical-Materialist Framework • Social processes are historically shaped by given mode of production and its relations • Every mode of production develops its inherent Class contradictions • Emerging class consciousness leads to resistance against prevalent forms of unequal exchange and exploitation • Ruling elite retaliates with counter hegemonic measures which may include brute force, cultural and social alienation or reification, reactionary and violent counter-movements, • The movement succeeds in generating more advance class consciousness Beyond Globalization - CSM

  13. Some Examples • Communist revolutionaries in nationalist phase – Bhagat Sing, Azad and others • Communist Movements for Land struggles and working class rights just before and after independence – Telangana, Tebhaga, Textile Workers strikes….under CPI/CPM leadership • Revolutionary uprisings of peasants and tribal led under M-L-M ideology under Naxalite leadership • Armed and Guerilla anti-state warfare of Maoists in current phase Beyond Globalization - CSM

  14. Colonization – A Turning point of Indian History • Colonization initiated the process of looking inward • Forced the elite to compare native social structures and Indian cultural values with those of the West • The quest for breaking with rigid and inviolable social norms created internal churning among the elite sections • With gradual replacement from Feudal mode of production to Industrial Mode of production began the change in Economic Relation and consequent Social Transformation Beyond Globalization - CSM

  15. National Movement - Mobilization of Classes & Identities: Second Turning Point • Existing differences and diversities of Castes, Religions and Economic interdependence posed challenge • The emerging Liberal Elite under Congress provided mature and flexible framework of Social Consensus among various sections of Indian Society. • National Movement for Independence was fought under hegemony of emerging elite with subaltern classes providing the force and mobilization • Gandhi used Non-violence (Dissent, Disobedience and Defiance) which was the preferred ethos of vast majority Beyond Globalization - CSM

  16. Fractured Unity of Elite and the Subaltern • Power struggle among ruling factions belonging to major religious groups • Historical antagonism between the ruling classes and the ruled who had lost the power under Colonial domination and • Fear of not being treated equally if the social structure remains unchanged created deep fractures and discomfort among Muslims and Dalits and their autonomous organizations and organic leadership • The social mobilizations generated new forms of aspirations among Muslims and Dalits demanding separate homelands Beyond Globalization - CSM

  17. Reorganization of the Geopolitical and Social Boundaries • The Indian subcontinent was redrawn on the basis of religious divide creating TWO nation states which had no historical precedence • The emerging Nation State of India adopted a Secular, Socialist and Democratic constitution that guaranteed equality to all and a promise to eliminate all forms of exploitation and discrimination – another aspect having no historical precedence. Beyond Globalization - CSM

  18. What did Nationalist Movement achieve? • Ruling Classes established the hegemony during the nationalist phase • Communist revolutionaries remained at fringe • The most oppressed section of Indian society, the Dalits succeeded in forming an Autonomous Identity based Social Movement with Dr. Ambedkar emerging as their leader with popularity only next to Gandhi. • Elite Muslims left the country and the working class Muslims were subdued. Beyond Globalization - CSM

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