Social Movements in Canada: The Women’s Movement and the Environmental Movement
In groups, brainstorm what traits, words, qualities, actions, jobs you associate with “masculine” and with “feminine” Send one group member to write your group’s words on the board
Feminism • “First Wave” • Early 1900’s • Right to vote • White, usually middle-upper class • Equality in basic legal rights
Second- Wave Feminism • “Mainstream” feminists • Work within the system • Change laws by getting media attention • “Radical” feminists • Men won’t willingly give up power and privilege • More aggressive protest tactics • Some negative public perception: “man-hating”
Second-Wave Feminism(Women’s Liberation) • Still mostly white, mostly middle to upper class • Post-war suburbia: expectations to work and keep a perfect home • Standards of beauty and dress • Limited range of jobs: “pink ghetto” • Legal for employers to discriminate against them in work and wages
1963- Betty FriedanThe Feminine Mystique The Problem That Has No Name: “The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States. Each suburban wife struggles with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night- she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question-- 'Is this all?”
1967: Royal Commission on the Status of Women • Women should have the right to choose to work outside of the home, and receive paid maternity leave • Society should take some responsibility for children: day care • The government should act to help stop discrimination against women
Victories Reproductive rights (contraception, abortion) Choice in if and when to start a family – career, education Women’s crisis shelters, more protection from domestic violence. (Women still disproportionately affected, often economically dependent). 1976 paid maternity leave, 1977 equal pay equal work 1982: Charter of Rights and Freedoms • Includes a clause prohibiting gender discrimination
Mixed Results More inclusion of women in and access to school subjects, university degrees, and jobs that were dominated by men and considered not for girls. However, women are still under-represented in many professions and in politics. Wage gap is reduced but not eliminated (88% today)
Patriarchy Patriarchy: Form of social organization where males are the primary authority figures: poltical leadership, control of property (financial power), moral authority. Males as dominate, superior gender – females as subordinate, inferior. Masculinity more valued than femininity. Males as head of family unit. Property and title inherited by male lineage. Structural: embedded in social, legal, political, economic organization and institutions
“Third Wave” : 1990’s – today • Women of colour • Queer women • Working-class women • Inclusion of more nationalities and cultures • Gender roles and stereotypes, media • “Post-feminism”?
Environmentalism • 1962: Rachel Carlson, “Silent Spring” Pesticides impact on animals, complex eco-systems • Calls for government to control, reduce industrial pollution: • Clean air, clean water, protecting animals and trees • Business and government initially resistant
Earthrise – Apollo 8 1968“the most influential environmental photograph ever taken”
Growing public concern: first image of Earth from space: planet is finite, beautiful • Federal government and many provinces pass laws limiting environmental damage;national parks and wildlife preservation • Initially only industrial focus – gradually toward homes and individual actions: pesticides on lawns and gardens, cleaning products, efficiency of automobiles
“Radical” – Earth First!, Earth Liberation Front • Direct Action: civil disobedience, criminal acts • “Eco-terrorism”? • “System Change, not Climate Change”- eco-socialism • Environment as an externality • Regulation = businesses internalize the cost
Environmental Movement: 1: Extensive development and extraction of natural resources after WWII. Less awareness of ecological consequences. Population growth resulted in rapid construction and expansion of cities. Cities became dirty and polluted. Urban planning of housing (suburbia) designed in a way that was not environmentally friendly. Dependence on automobiles and fossil fuels entrenched in 1950’s.
Tommy Douglas 2: As a child, had to have his leg amputated. A doctor agreed to do it for free. This experience sparked his concerns about everyone having access to health care regardless of class. As a teen he witnessed a violent protest where a police officer killed a protestor. This contributed to his interest in protecting fundamental freedoms and his creation of the Bill of Rights. His activism began during the Depression in response to the devastating poverty. It was during the Depression that he joined the CCF.
Women’s Movement/Feminism 4: Successes: established reproductive freedoms, less legal barriers to divorce, some increase in women’s wages and access to male-dominated professions. Wage gap has not been completely closed and has stagnated in the last 20 years. Still under-represented in politics and many professions. Third Wave feminism in 1990’s: focus on inclusion of women of colour, queer and working-class women.