Social Movements: A Means of Classifying Types of Social Movements in Terms of Organization
The Nature of Collective Behaviour • The question of form….ideal type….pure case…. • Social Movements are organized, rational, purposive. • SMs initial development resembles collective behaviour, but SMs move beyond CB’s through organization.
SM Organization • 5 KEY STEPS TOWARDS SOPHISTICATION…
5 Steps • 1. Potential members must define the situation- see movement goals outside everyday life…. • They begin to label the situation as unordinary unusual, extra-ordinary….
2. Second Social Movements require a suspension of the attitude of everyday life by relatively large numbers of people
3. They must be accompanied by action defined by participants and observers
4. Suspension of usual attitudes must be accompanied by heightened emotional arousal =There must be a “cause’
5. Somehow social movement must move beyond the normal, normative day to day activities • Members must become mobilized in search of goal….
Social Movement Theory Collective Behaviour theories below are inadequate: • Contagion, • convergence, • emergent norms • and rational calculus views have limited understanding
Social Movement Theory • What is required is a comprehensive approach that allows for more complex and variable forms to be considered under the study of collective behaviour.
Social movement- • SMs are conscious and purposive structure types of collective behaviour. • They contrast with other collective behaviour forms such as crowds, crazes…which represent only incipientstages of on-going social movements.
Few studies exist of social movements as complex organizations
…Social movements are complex- • Social Movements require: • Leadership • Information • Hierarchy • Commitment • On-going progresses and action
In 1952, the Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL), led by T. R. M. Howard, a black surgeon, entrepreneur, and planter, organized a successful boycott of gas stations in Mississippi that refused to provide restrooms for blacks
The Montgomery Improvement Association—created to lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott managed to keep the boycott going for over a year until a federal court order required Montgomery to desegregate its buses.
The success in Montgomery made its leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. a nationally known figure. It also inspired other bus boycotts, such as the highly successful Tallahassee, Florida, boycott of 1956–57
In 1957 Dr. King and Rev. John Duffy, the leaders of the Montgomery Improvement Association, joined with other church leaders to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
The SCLC, with its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, did not attempt to create a network of chapters as the NAACP did. • It offered training and leadership assistance for local efforts to fight segregation
Founded Feb. 12. 1909, the NAACP is the nation's oldest, largest and most widely recognized grassroots-based civil rights organization.
Example:Orange Movement • =Orange Lodge-Orange Lodge was charitable organization that helped in coming Protestants in Ontario, Instrumental in Providing Charity before the Welfare State, Important for Schools-ie Oliver Mowat.
Social movementsembody a structure of: • a. roles • b. positions • c. norms • d. values • e. leadership
Key Variables • Organization Goals-inward (expressive) or outward (instrumental) • Conditions for membership-recruiting, screening, rewards
Organizational Goals • Inclusive OrganizationsOUTWARD • -do not have rigorous screening • -minimal levels of initial commitment • -short indoctrination periods
Inclusive • Inclusive -People Serving Groups • favourable environmental support- • self improvement groups • lifestyle change groups. • Simpler strategies, • more evolutionary in nature.
Organizational Goals • Exclusive Organization Inward • -rigorous controls • -requires recruits to subject themselves to • organizational discipline, • orders, • heavy initial commitment
Exclusion vs. Inclusion • -Exclusive movement • -member serving, • influence peddling, • strategies of secrecy, • isolation, strict boundaries. • Social control through isolation and socialization,
Mixed Organizations • Purposes varied: • -reveals a sharing of diverse goals- • difference often between leadership and membership • The goals of the organization are unclear
Social Movement Org. Differ • Member oriented –I.e religious community • Action oriented • Mainstream vs. subcultural values • Membership compliance-pure ideologists, backsliders,
Achievement Based Upon: • Focus whether the collectivity pursues change in the existing order-social, political moral • Direction - service to membership (AA)
Public opinion- whether the climate of public opinion is favourable or unfavourable] • Concentration-social or member issues vs. public opinion • Clear External Target-seeking additional public support, greater resources, larger membership
Incentives for ParticipationDepends on Type of movement • 1. Solidarity types-association, socializing, congeniality, sense of group membership, identification • 2. Purposive types-intangible but they derive from stated ends of the association rather than from the simple act of associating • 3. Functional types • -Goals, Environments, Internal Structure
Conclusion • Social Movements are associated with a vortex of social change… • Studies of the structure, function, and dynamics of such organizations can contribute to overall study of how society resists and implements change
. Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: • The most useful so far has been: • The resource mobilization approach emphasizes both societal support and constraint of social movement phenomena.
Resource Mobilization Emphasizes three mobilization processes: • links to other groups • dependence on external support • tactics used by authorities to control and incorporate social movements
R.M. =Conflict Theory • The approach emphasizespolitical economic rather than social psychology…
Smelser, Turner and Killian, show that the ability or inability of societies to reduce grievances is key to understanding the foundation of Social Movement.
Summary • The discontent in the social order, problems with the existing social structure are all key in understanding whether or not a social movement can become organized.
Early Mobilzation of Social • A stage when issues and goals become formulated, collective action is shaped. • Two key processes revolve around power, leadership and hierarchy
Initially • Leadership roles must undergo elaboration • Intiation by Charismatic leader and other appointments • Weber SM require charismatic authority to gain momentum.
Forms of Authority- • According to Max Weber’s ideal types there have been three major formsauthority include: • Charismatic, • Traditional, • Rational legal.
Charismatic authority • a. Charismatic authority- is defined as power legitimated by.. • Extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience. • Ie. Jesus Christ, Mohammed, Martin Luther
Charisma `the cult of personality’ • Examples: • Jesus Christ, Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Trudeau in Canada • Charismatic movements are very dependent on their leaders. • Long term persistence of the movement requires the routinization of charisma.
Ie. Christianity • For example, Christ the charismatic leader dies. • But Christ’s charisma was routinized in the traditions and bureaucratic structure of the Roman Catholic Church. • Protestant Reformation=rational legal authority
Traditional Authority- • Traditional Authority-power legitimated by respect for long-established cultural patterns. • Traditional authority -ritual, repetitive behaviour, it is bond by numerous social norms as opposed to formalized rules and laws.
Traditional authority declines • Traditional authority declines as pre-industrial societies give way to industrialized social forms. • Yet traditional authority can remain in rational legal systems… • I.e parental domination over children, • male domination of women.
Rational Legal Authority • Modern authority is legitimated through rational laws and regulations. • Modern authority is carried out through bureaucratic means. • Modern power imprisons man like an iron cage…