The effect of student teaching on pre service pe teachers efficacy beliefs
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The Effect of Student Teaching on Pre-service PE Teachers’ Efficacy Beliefs. Zan Gao , University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Ping Xiang, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX Wenhao Liu, Slippery Rock University, PA. Introduction.

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The effect of student teaching on pre service pe teachers efficacy beliefs

The Effect of Student Teaching on Pre-service PE Teachers’ Efficacy Beliefs

ZanGao, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

Ping Xiang, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

Wenhao Liu, Slippery Rock University, PA


Introduction
Introduction

  • Teachers’ efficacy beliefs, defined as teachers’ beliefs about their abilities to affect valued student outcomes, can influence teachers’ views of teaching and learning.

  • Teachers’ efficacy beliefs may be cultivated during their early experiences as pre-service teachers, especially as student teachers (Bandura, 1997).

  • Student teaching provides an opportunity for pre-service teachers to gather information regarding their personal abilities for teaching. However, the effects of student teaching on efficacy beliefs remain inconclusive.


Introduction1
Introduction

  • In the academic domains, some researchers insisted that student teachers’ efficacy beliefs would increase, whereas others argued that they may be somewhat damaged.

  • In PE, Martin and Kulinna (2003, 2004) have examined the changes of PE teachers’ efficacy beliefs as a result of professional development.

  • No studies are available on the development of PE student teacher’s efficacy beliefs in student teaching semester.


Research purpose and question
Research Purpose and Question

  • Purpose: To determine if student teachers’ efficacy beliefs would change statistically as a result of four-month student teaching.

  • Question: What is the impact of the student teaching semester on student teachers’ efficacy beliefs in PE?


Methods
Methods

  • A pretest-posttest design used to examine student teachers’ efficacy beliefs

  • Participants: 145 PE major students (58 males, 87 females; Mage = 24.22, SD = 2.65)

  • Final sample: 121 participants (49 males; 72 females)

  • From year 2006-2008 at four U.S. universities


Instrumentation
Instrumentation

  • The modified Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001) consists of

    1. Efficacy for student engagement (e.g., How much can you do to get through to the most difficult students? )

    2. Efficacy for instructional strategies (e.g., How well can you respond to difficult questions from your students? )

    3. Efficacy for class management (e.g., How much can you do to control disruptive behavior in the class?)

    * All responses made on 9-point Likert scales


Data analyses
Data Analyses

  • 1. Means and standard deviations for pre-test and post-test scores on the scale were computed.

    2. An ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to examine changes in student teachers’ three efficacy beliefs between the pre-test and post-test data.


Results
Results

  • The results revealed a significant change of student teachers’ efficacy beliefs over time, F (3, 118) = 22.35, p = .00, η2 = .36.

Table 1. Descriptive Statistics(N =121)

a: there is a significant difference between the tests, p < .05.


Discussion
Discussion

  • Increased efficacy beliefs reported by student teachers in this study indicate student teaching experiences can have a positive effect on student teachers’ efficacy beliefs.

  • This finding provides empirical support for the view that student teaching represents a crucial early stage of shaping student teachers’ beliefs in their prospective teaching careers.

  • Future studies might focus on the effective interventions that facilitate student teachers’ efficacy beliefs.


Limitations
Limitations

  • Call for qualitative data (e.g., open end interview).

  • Consider students’ background knowledge, personal experiences, etc.


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