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What do we know about Ancient Egypt?. How do you like your environment?. What does your environment: Look like? Feel like? Smell like? Sound Like? Would you like to change your environment someday? Why? What would you want it to be like if you did?. Geography of Ancient Egypt.

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What do we know about Ancient Egypt?

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how do you like your environment
How do you like your environment?
  • What does your environment:
      • Look like?
      • Feel like?
      • Smell like?
      • Sound Like?
      • Would you like to change your environment someday? Why? What would you want it to be like if you did?
geography of ancient egypt
Geography of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt can be broken down into two regions

Upper Egypt

Lower Egypt

upper egypt
Upper Egypt

The southern region was

called Upper Egypt. It was

named this because it was

located up river in relation

to the Nile’s flow.

lower egypt
Lower Egypt

The northern region

was called Lower Egypt.

It was named this

because it was located

down river in relation

to the Nile’s flow

so what should we know
So what should we know?

With little rain

falling in the

region, most

of Egypt was

and still is

today, desert.

Almost every

year, the Nile

flooded Upper

Egypt in the

mid summer

and Lower

Egypt in the fall.

the floods
The Floods

The Nile river’s floods were a “Life-giving Miracle.”

With out the floods, Egypt could never produce any agriculture to support life.

The Nile provides both water and fertile soil for farming.

from hunter gatherers to farmers
From Hunter-Gatherers to Farmers
  • Hunter-Gatherers moved into the Nile Valley more than 12,000 years ago
      • They found plants, animals, and fish to eat
      • In time they learned how to farm
  • Over time they developed canals that directed the Nile’s flow and carried water to the fields.
what did the farmers do
What did the farmers do?
  • Farmers in Egypt grew:
    • Wheat
    • Barley
    • Fruits
    • Vegetables
  • They also raised:
    • Cattle
    • Sheep
two kingdoms
Two Kingdoms
  • Each kingdom had its own capital city where its ruler was based.
  • Upper Egypt:
      • The capital city of Upper Egypt was Nekhen, located off of the Nile’s west bank
  • Lower Egypt:
      • The capital city of Lower Egypt was Pe, located in the Nile’s delta.
lower egyptian king
Lower Egyptian King

The king (pharaoh) of Lower Egypt could be identified by his head dress or crown.

The crown was a bright

red color, usually with

some sort of gold

bordering on it.

upper egyptian king
Upper Egyptian King

The king of Upper Egypt could be identified by his head dress as well.

The crown he wore was usuallya tall, white, cone shaped.

who is menes
Who is Menes

Menes was a king of Upper Egypt, who wanted to unify all of Egypt under one rule.

Menes being from Upper Egypt, had his army invade Lower Egypt and took control.

He then married a Lower Egyptian princess, in order to “strengthen” his hold on the new conquered land.

who is menes1
Who is Menes?

After he had secured his dominance as King of both lands, he began to wear both crowns. However; later he unified them into one crown that looked like this

who is menes2
Who is Menes?

Many historians consider Menes to be Egypt’s first pharaoh.

Menes built a new

capital city at the

southern tip of the

Nile Delta. The city

was named Memphis.

couple vocabulary words associated with menes
Couple Vocabulary words associated with Menes

Menes founded the first Dynasty in Egypt. That dynasty was also a theocracy and it lasted about 200 years.

Dynasty- a series of rulers from the same family.

Theocracy- a government ruled by religious leaders such as priests…

fall of menes dynasty
Fall of Menes Dynasty

Menes’ dynasty expanded vastly south and east of the Nile River; however, like all “good” things, it had to end eventually.

Rivals would later challenge his dynasty and conquer.

Approximately 30 dynasties ruled ancient Egypt over a 2500 year span

let s review what we know can you answer these questions
Let’s review what we know… Can you answer these questions?

1.) Where was the Egyptian Kingdom of Lower Egypt located?

2.) Why was the delta of the Nile River ideal for settling?

3.) What foods did the Egyptians eat? (Make sure to explain their development throughout time)

4.) Who was the first Pharaoh of Egypt?

5.) Why did the Pharaoh of the first dynasty wear a double crown?

brief summary of what we have learned so far
Brief Summary of what we have learned so far…
  • As you have seen:
      • Ancient Egypt began in the Fertile

Nile River Valley

      • Two Kingdoms developed
          • Upper Region
          • Lower Region
      • The two kingdoms later formed under one rule
          • Menes was the first Pharaoh of Egypt
          • Menes of Upper Egypt invaded Lower Egypt and married
      • Egypt grew their territory
the old kingdom
The Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom was a period in Egyptian history that lasted about 500 years.

During this time, the Egyptians continued to develop their political system.

The political system they developed was based on the belief that Egypt’s pharaoh was both the king and a god.

the old kingdom1
The Old Kingdom

The ancient Egyptians believed that Egypt belonged to the gods.

Also that the Pharaoh was sent to Egypt by the gods in order to manage the people, agriculture, and well being.

As a result the pharaoh had absolute power.

the most famous old kingdom pharaoh
The most famous Old Kingdom Pharaoh

The most famous pharaoh of the Old Kingdom was a man named Khufu.

Khufu is the most famous,

but little is known about

him. He is most famous

for the monuments built

for him.

khufu s pyramid
Khufu’s Pyramid

Khufu was honored by the Egyptians, so they built a monument for him after his death. His pyramid is the one on the far right.

the pyramids
The Pyramids

The Egyptians believed that burial sites, especially royal tombs, were very important.

The first pyramids were built during the Old Kingdom. These were some of the largest ever built.


The largest pyramid is the Great Pyramid of Khufu.

It covers 13 acres at its


stands 481 feet tall

Made up of more that

2 million lime stones.

so how did they do it
So how did they do it?

They were structured to be tombs for their important/royal figures.

1.) Huge blocks of limestone were cut with copper and stone tools and take by boat to the building site

2.) Teams of workers dragged the stones on wooden sleds to the pyramid

3.) Several men were used to stack the blocks

Let’s look at page 289 for a quick glimpse

society of egypt
Society of Egypt…

The Egyptians had about 2 million people living in the Kingdom.

So a social hierarchy

was put into place to

maintain balance.

The lower class made

Up roughly 80% of

The population

let s start at the bottom of the pyramid
Let’s start at the bottom of the Pyramid

Farmers, Servants, and Slaves

The majority of the Egyptian population consisted of these people.

Out of 2,000,000 people, roughly 80% fall under this category

next up
Next up…


Craftsmen in ancient Egypt were usually trained and skilled laborers.

They were often well-respected in the community and had a comfortable lifestyle.

Yet every craftsman's lifestyle and social standing depended on the quality of his skills and experience.



Scribes were responsible for writing or documenting important events, meetings, and rules for the community to attend to or participate in.

next up1
Next up..


Nobles were the people that worked or lived within the palaces of Egypt.

They were responsible for assisting the high priest, entertaining the pharaoh, and performing other duties around the palace or temple

getting to the top
Getting to the top…

High Priests

High Priests were considered one of the highest ranking officials in the hierarchy

In some cases the High Priest would take the role of Pharaoh if the present Pharaoh became ill or died before having a replacement.

The High Priest was the voice to the gods for all people.

what is a vizer
What is a Vizer?


The Egyptian Vizier was a very important position with a full range of powers

He was the chief minister of Egypt answerable only to the Pharaoh

At various times, the vizier was also the High Priest

All government documents used in Egypt had to have the seal of the vizier in order to be considered authentic and binding

Viziers resolved all domestic territorial disputes, controlled the reservoirs, food supply and supervised industries .

Overseeing the daily functioning of Pharaoh's palace and the protection of Pharaohs

tip top
Tip Top…


Ruled Egypt as a God like figure.

Pharaohs were the King or Queen of Egypt. Most pharaohs were men but some well-known pharaohs, such as Nefertiti and Cleopatra, were women.

A Pharaoh was the most important and powerful person in the kingdom. He was the head of the government and high priest of every temple.

The people of Egypt considered the pharaoh to be a half-man, half-god.

The Pharaoh owned all of Egypt.