What do we know about Ancient Egypt?. How do you like your environment?. What does your environment: Look like? Feel like? Smell like? Sound Like? Would you like to change your environment someday? Why? What would you want it to be like if you did?. Geography of Ancient Egypt.
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Ancient Egypt can be broken down into two regions
The southern region was
called Upper Egypt. It was
named this because it was
located up river in relation
to the Nile’s flow.
The northern region
was called Lower Egypt.
It was named this
because it was located
down river in relation
to the Nile’s flow
With little rain
falling in the
of Egypt was
and still is
year, the Nile
Egypt in the
Egypt in the fall.
The Nile river’s floods were a “Life-giving Miracle.”
With out the floods, Egypt could never produce any agriculture to support life.
The Nile provides both water and fertile soil for farming.
The king (pharaoh) of Lower Egypt could be identified by his head dress or crown.
The crown was a bright
red color, usually with
some sort of gold
bordering on it.
The king of Upper Egypt could be identified by his head dress as well.
The crown he wore was usuallya tall, white, cone shaped.
Menes was a king of Upper Egypt, who wanted to unify all of Egypt under one rule.
Menes being from Upper Egypt, had his army invade Lower Egypt and took control.
He then married a Lower Egyptian princess, in order to “strengthen” his hold on the new conquered land.
After he had secured his dominance as King of both lands, he began to wear both crowns. However; later he unified them into one crown that looked like this
Many historians consider Menes to be Egypt’s first pharaoh.
Menes built a new
capital city at the
southern tip of the
Nile Delta. The city
was named Memphis.
Menes founded the first Dynasty in Egypt. That dynasty was also a theocracy and it lasted about 200 years.
Dynasty- a series of rulers from the same family.
Theocracy- a government ruled by religious leaders such as priests…
Menes’ dynasty expanded vastly south and east of the Nile River; however, like all “good” things, it had to end eventually.
Rivals would later challenge his dynasty and conquer.
Approximately 30 dynasties ruled ancient Egypt over a 2500 year span
1.) Where was the Egyptian Kingdom of Lower Egypt located?
2.) Why was the delta of the Nile River ideal for settling?
3.) What foods did the Egyptians eat? (Make sure to explain their development throughout time)
4.) Who was the first Pharaoh of Egypt?
5.) Why did the Pharaoh of the first dynasty wear a double crown?
Nile River Valley
The Old Kingdom was a period in Egyptian history that lasted about 500 years.
During this time, the Egyptians continued to develop their political system.
The political system they developed was based on the belief that Egypt’s pharaoh was both the king and a god.
The ancient Egyptians believed that Egypt belonged to the gods.
Also that the Pharaoh was sent to Egypt by the gods in order to manage the people, agriculture, and well being.
As a result the pharaoh had absolute power.
The most famous pharaoh of the Old Kingdom was a man named Khufu.
Khufu is the most famous,
but little is known about
him. He is most famous
for the monuments built
Khufu was honored by the Egyptians, so they built a monument for him after his death. His pyramid is the one on the far right.
The Egyptians believed that burial sites, especially royal tombs, were very important.
The first pyramids were built during the Old Kingdom. These were some of the largest ever built.
The largest pyramid is the Great Pyramid of Khufu.
It covers 13 acres at its
stands 481 feet tall
Made up of more that
2 million lime stones.
They were structured to be tombs for their important/royal figures.
1.) Huge blocks of limestone were cut with copper and stone tools and take by boat to the building site
2.) Teams of workers dragged the stones on wooden sleds to the pyramid
3.) Several men were used to stack the blocks
Let’s look at page 289 for a quick glimpse
The Egyptians had about 2 million people living in the Kingdom.
So a social hierarchy
was put into place to
The lower class made
Up roughly 80% of
Farmers, Servants, and Slaves
The majority of the Egyptian population consisted of these people.
Out of 2,000,000 people, roughly 80% fall under this category
Craftsmen in ancient Egypt were usually trained and skilled laborers.
They were often well-respected in the community and had a comfortable lifestyle.
Yet every craftsman's lifestyle and social standing depended on the quality of his skills and experience.
Scribes were responsible for writing or documenting important events, meetings, and rules for the community to attend to or participate in.
Nobles were the people that worked or lived within the palaces of Egypt.
They were responsible for assisting the high priest, entertaining the pharaoh, and performing other duties around the palace or temple
High Priests were considered one of the highest ranking officials in the hierarchy
In some cases the High Priest would take the role of Pharaoh if the present Pharaoh became ill or died before having a replacement.
The High Priest was the voice to the gods for all people.
The Egyptian Vizier was a very important position with a full range of powers
He was the chief minister of Egypt answerable only to the Pharaoh
At various times, the vizier was also the High Priest
All government documents used in Egypt had to have the seal of the vizier in order to be considered authentic and binding
Viziers resolved all domestic territorial disputes, controlled the reservoirs, food supply and supervised industries .
Overseeing the daily functioning of Pharaoh's palace and the protection of Pharaohs
Ruled Egypt as a God like figure.
Pharaohs were the King or Queen of Egypt. Most pharaohs were men but some well-known pharaohs, such as Nefertiti and Cleopatra, were women.
A Pharaoh was the most important and powerful person in the kingdom. He was the head of the government and high priest of every temple.
The people of Egypt considered the pharaoh to be a half-man, half-god.
The Pharaoh owned all of Egypt.