Art of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egyptian culture is considered crucial to the development of art in Europe and the Western Hemisphere. Its influence on early Greek art is visible.
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Art of Ancient EgyptAncient Egyptian culture is considered crucial to the development of art in Europe and the Western Hemisphere. Its influence on early Greek art is visible.
Art of Ancient EgyptEarly Egyptians believed that invisible supreme powers lay behind the forces of nature and that order and balance (maat) preserved their universe. Identifying and naming these elements and setting them into a social structure like their own, allowed the Egyptians to feel as if they had some control over their world.
Art of Ancient EgyptThese beliefs evolved into a religion with many gods, goddesses and explanatory myths. Amum was the King of the Gods, and Osiris was the Lord of the Underworld. Divinities had a variety of forms, human, animal, or a combination of both. The pharaoh, an intermediary between mortals and gods during his lifetime, was destined to become one of the “great gods” after his death.
Art of Ancient EgyptEgyptian culture was dedicated to providing a home for the ka, that part of the human being that defines personality and that survives life on earth after death. The ka could find a home in a statue of the deceased. The enduring nature of the ka required that artisans decorate tombs with paintings that the spirit could enjoy after death. Small servant figures might be carved from wood to serve the departed in the afterlife.
Polytheism is the belief in and worship of many gods. It contrasts with Monotheism, belief in one god, and Pantheism, identification of God with the universe. In polytheism the gods are personified, distinguished by functions, related to one another in a cosmic family, and the subjects of myths and legends. The belief in a multitude of distinct and separate deities. It is formally contrasted with pantheism, the belief in an impersonal God identical with the universe, although the two doctrines can sometimes be found in the same religious tradition. Polytheism is distinguished from theism, also called monotheism, on the basis of polytheism's claim that divinity, while personal and distinguished from the universe, is many rather than one. Except for the great monotheisms of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, the world's religions are overwhelmingly polytheistic. Polytheism characterizes Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism in the East, and also contemporary African tribal religions. In the ancient world Egyptians, Babylonians, and Assyrians worshipped a plurality of deities, as did the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Norse. Belief in several distinct deities serves to provide a focus for popular religious devotion when the official deity or deities of the religion are remote from the common person. According to Ninian Smart, deities are formed around a number of aspects of life. These include natural forces and objects such as fertility and atmospheric forces; vegetation such as trees, sacred herbs, and vineyards; animal and human forms such as serpents, cattle, and animal - human hybrids; and assorted functions such as love, agriculture, healing, and war.
The Tomb was a miniature universe for the deceased, an eternal resting place. The burial of the dead implied the expectation of an afterlife. 2004年12月6日，在埃及西南部沙漠中的巴哈里亚绿洲 （Bahariya oasis）的金木乃伊谷，埃及一考古队发现了20具木乃伊。2000年在该地进行的一次考古挖掘曾发现105具木乃伊。
During mummification the internal organs were removed and placed in four containers. These containers often have human or animal-headed stoppers. The word, canopic, comes from the Greek name of the local god of Canopus in the Nile delta, who was represented as a human-headed pot. Canopic jars can be made of limestone, alabaster, wood, pottery, or even cartonnage. The heads of the canopic jar represented the Four Sons of Horus: From right to left they are; Imsety: The human headed guardian of the liver; Hapy: The baboon headed guardian of the lungs; Duamutef: The jackal or wild dog headed guardian of the stomach; Qebekh-sennuef: The falcon headed guardian of the intestines;.
Egyptian Mummy and Coffin, ca. 1000 BCE. British Museum, London The ancient Egyptians believed in life after death. They believed that mummification would guarantee passage into the next life. They venerated the pharaoh as the living representative of the sun god. They believed that on his death, the pharaoh would join with the sun to govern Egypt eternally. His body was prepared for burial by a special, ten-week embalming procedure that involved removing all of his internal organs except his heart, and filling his body cavity with preservatives. His intestines, stomach, lungs, and liver were all embalmed separately---the brain was removed and discarded. The king’s corpse was then wrapped in fine linen and placed in an elaborately ornamented coffin, which was floated down the Nile on a royal barge to a burial site located at Gizeh. In no other civilization have such elaborate preparations for the afterlife been made in the preservation of the dead.
The large white pillar painted on the back of the coffin forms a "backbone." This provides symbolic support for the mummy and displays an inscription detailing Nes-mut-aat-neru's ancestry. Panels featuring images of god and goddesses
Like the first coffin, it is in the shape of the mummy. The lid again shows Nes-mut-aat-neru's face, wig and elaborate collar. Here too the scarab beetle with outstretched wings hovers over the mummy. Below the scarab look for a small scene showing the deceased Nes-mut-aat-neru worshipping a god, and a two-column inscription. A full-length figure of a goddess. Another wooden coffin, more simply decorated
The outermost coffin of Nes-mut-aat-neru, made primarily out of sycamore wood. The posts of the coffin are inscribed with religious texts. On the top of the coffin sits an alert jackal, a reference to Anubis, the jackal-headed god who was the patron of embalmers and protector of cemeteries.
These two wooden boxes filled with mud shawabti figures were found with Nes-mut-aat-neru's elaborate nested coffins. Shawabti figures were molded in the shape of a mummified person, and were designed to do any work that the gods asked the deceased's spirit to do in the afterworld. Literally translated it means "to answer." In some tombs of the late New Kingdom whole gangs of ushabti workers were included with different tools for doing different work. A complete collection would consist of 401 Ushabti: one for each day of the year, 365 plus 36 foreman
Coffin for a Sacred Cat, Ptolemaic period, 304-30 B.C. Bronze, Height: 11 in. (27.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
If the heart is not “found true by trial of the Great Balance,” it will be devoured by themonster, Ament, thus meeting a second death. If pure, it might sail with the sun “up and down the river,” or flourish in a realm where wheat grows high and the living souls of the dead enjoy feasting and singing.
Illustration of Spell 110 from the Book of the Dead in the burial chamber of Sennudjem, ca. 1279 BC. New Kingdom
This is a tomb painting from the tomb of a man named Menna, New Kingdom. The Egyptians believed that the pleasures of life could be made permanent through scenes like this In this painting, Menna, the largest figure, is shown twice. He is spear fishing on the right and flinging throwing sticks at birds on the left. His wife, the second-largest figure, and his daughter and son are with him. The deceased portrayed in the way he or she wished to remain forever accompanied by images of family and servants.
Still life: offerings for the deceasedEarly Sixth DynastyPainted limestoneHeight: 48 cm (18 7/8 in)Width: 38.5 cm (15 1/8 in)The Detroit Institute of Arts
Palette of King Narmer (back/front) predynastic, 3000-2920 BC, 2’1”h. Egyptian Museum
The Narmer Palette (Great Hierakonpolis Palette) J.E. Quibell, Slate palette from Hierakonpolis, Cairo (Horus Temple 'Main Deposit') - h. 63.5 cm
Mudstone palette, Length: 42.5cm (泥岩雕刻板)，c. 3200 BC. 耶拉孔波利斯古城，刻有瞪羚、野狗等动物图案。与大多数埃及艺术品不同，上面不存在对人的任何描述。后来的埃及艺术家将动物描绘成宠物、祭祀品和食物。但在耶拉孔波利斯古城，动物则是权力的象征，让人充满敬畏，预示着饲养它们的统治者也具有令人敬畏的权力。
The Egyptian canon of proportion. Relief block with the figure of Aa-akhti. Late 3rd Dynasty, Fine-grained limestone with traces of paint. H: 184 cm,W: 83 cm, Depth: 18 cm. Musee du Louvre, Paris
Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret, c. 2610 BC, Painted limestone, 120 cm h. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. The eyes are inlaid with rock crystal, facial features and Nofret’s headband and necklace are painted. They are probably the oldest portrait statues in the world.
New Kingdom Scene of fowling, from the Tomb of Neb-amon at Thebes, Egypt, ca. 1400 BCE. Fragment of a fresco secco (dry) New Kingdom British Museum
Relief of ItushFifth Dynasty, reign of Djedkare-IsesiLimestoneHeight: 42.6 cm (16 7/8 in)Width: 74.4 cm (29 3/8 in)Depth: 9.5 cm (3 3/4 in)Brooklyn Museum of Art Relief block with the figure of Aa-akhti. Late Third Dynasty, Fine-grained limestone with traces of paint. Height: 184 cm,Width: 83 cm, Depth: 18 cm. Musee du Louvre, Paris
Slab stela of Prince Wep-em-nefret, Fourth Dynasty, reign of Khufu. Painted limestone. Height: 45.7 cm, Width: 66 cm, Depth: 7.6 cm. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, Berkeley
Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt. From Tomb of Ti, Saqqara, Dynasty 5, c. 2510-2460 BC. Painted limestone relief, 114.3cm Discovered by the French archeologist Auguste Mariette in 1865.
Egypt, beginning of the Ptolomaic period (305-200 BC) limestone 24x18cm
Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III, ca. 2630-2611 BC. Derived from square-plan mastaba.
The Tomb was a miniature universe for the deceased, an eternal resting place. The burial of the dead implied the expectation of an afterlife. EVOLUTION OF TOMB STRUCTURE: MASTABA TO PYRAMIDS
Pyramid of the sun, Ceremonial center of the city of Teotihuacan, Mexico. Teotihuacan culture, 350-650 CE
Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu, ca. 2490-2528. The smallest of the pyramids, Menkaure's is 218 feet high (about a 15-story building) and about 356 feet at the base.