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Building a World Power. The Purchase of Alaska. Many Americans thought it was foolish for the US to buy Alaska from Russia in 1867 because it was so far away and so unknown It cost America $7.2 million , that’s 2 cents an acre

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The purchase of alaska
The Purchase of Alaska

  • Many Americans thought it was foolish for the US to buy Alaska from Russia in 1867 because it was so far away and so unknown

  • It cost America $7.2 million, that’s 2 cents an acre

  • They called it “Seward’s Folly” after William Seward, the Secretary of State who bought Alaska

The purchase of alaska1
The Purchase of Alaska

  • Buying Alaska turned out to be very profitable, in 1896 gold was discovered in the Klondike region

  • Resources of fish, lumber, oil, coal, and copper poured in, many felt that we should search for new lands across the seas

Excerpt from The Annexation of Hawaii

The United States was the biggest market for Hawaii's sugar. The transplanted planters longed for Hawaii to become part of the United States so they wouldn't have to worry about tariffs. The U.S. minister to Hawaii, John L. Stevens, was anxious to annex the islands as well. Sensing this, Queen Liliuokalani was on the verge of imposing a new Constitution shifting power back to the monarchy - but she never got the chance.

On Jan. 16, 1893, U.S. Marines landed in Honolulu armed with Howitzer cannons and carbines. A group of 18 men - mostly American sugar farmers - staged a coup, proclaiming themselves the "provisional government" of Hawaii. Stevens gave immediate recognition to them as Hawaii's true government.

Excerpt from The Annexation of Hawaii

  • Imprisoned in Iolani Palace, Queen Liliuokalani issued a statement:

    • "I yield to the superior force of the United States of America, whose minister, his Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu. ... Now, to avoid any collision of armed forces and perhaps the loss of life, I do, under this protest, and impelled by said force, yield my authority until such time as the government of the United States shall undo the action of its representative and reinstate me."

Excerpt from The Annexation of Hawaii

  • President Grover Cleveland investigated the coup and fired Stevens. He apologized to the queen. And on Dec. 18, 1893, he briefed Congress on his findings:

    • "By an act of war, committed with the participation of a diplomatic representative of the United States and without authority of Congress, the government of a feeble but friendly and confiding people has been overthrown," Cleveland said. "A substantial wrong has thus been done, which a due regard for our national character, as well as the rights of the injured people, requires we should endeavor to repair."

  • Cleveland refused to approve the annexation of Hawaii. Soon, however, he was out of office, and President William McKinley gave it his blessing.

Acquisition of hawaii
Acquisition of Hawaii

  • US interest in Hawaii was because of two major reasons: strategic location along trade routes to Asia and fertile soil

  • During the 1820s, New England Protestant missionaries travel to Hawaii

Acquisition of hawaii1
Acquisition of Hawaii

  • By 1870s, their descendants had become major landowners in Hawaii

  • In 1866, Hawaiian King Kalakaua attempts to restrict American influence

Acquisition of hawaii2
Acquisition of Hawaii

  • The Hawaiian League is formed to overthrow the monarchy and they persuade a US annexation – led by plantation owner Sanford Dole

  • 1887: The Hawaiian League forces Kalakaua to sign a new constitution that limited his power

Sanford Dole

Acquisition of hawaii3
Acquisition of Hawaii

  • US gets rights to use Pearl Harbor as a naval base

  • In 1891, King Kalakaua is succeeded by his sister, Queen Liliukalani

Acquisition of hawaii4
Acquisition of Hawaii

  • Queen Liliuokalani tries to encourage Hawaiian nationalism

  • Hawaii doesn’t get annexed until 1898, then becomes a state in 1959 (50th State)

Spanish american war 1898
Spanish American War (1898)

  • Why America Took an Interest in a Foreign War…

    • Economics: US invested $50 million into Cuba sugar plantations

    • Humanitarian: Americans sympathized with the Cubans revolting against Spain

    • Expansionism: some recognized the opportunity to seize land from Spain

Spanish american war 18981
Spanish American War (1898)

  • Immediate Causes Leading America to War…

    • Yellow Journalism: distorted and exaggerated newspaper articles (Examples: William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer)

    • The DeLome Note: a Spanish minister wrote a note that stated, “President McKinley is weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowds”

    • Sinking of the Maine: a US battleship that exploded in the harbor of Havana, Cuba (it was never determined at that time if Spain was responsible)

Spanish american war 18982
Spanish American War (1898)

Joseph Pulitzer

William Randolph Hearst

Spanish american war 18986
Spanish American War (1898)

  • The Splendid Little War…

    • Thousands of Americans volunteered to fight in the war against Spain

    • Our Army quickly grew from 30,000 soldiers to more than 274,000; included were the Buffalo Soldiers

    • Theodore Roosevelt was one of the war volunteers and led a company of cowhands and college athletes who called themselves the Rough Riders

Spanish american war 18987
Spanish American War (1898)

  • Rough Riders…

    • A volunteer cavalry group led by Teddy Roosevelt

    • Made up of cowboys, miners, actors, lawmen, socialists, etc...

    • They captured San Juan Hill

Spanish american war 189810
Spanish American War (1898)

  • Buffalo Soldiers…

    • All black regiment – led by Black Jack Pershing

    • Developed into the most distinguished fighting units in the Army (9th, 10th, 24th, and 25th Cavalries)

Spanish american war 189811
Spanish American War (1898)

  • Battles of the Spanish American War…

    • Manila Bay, Philippines– Theodore Roosevelt sent Admiral Dewey and the American Navy to destroy the Spanish Naval Fleet harbored in Manila Bay and captured the entire Spanish Fleet

    • San Juan Hill, Cuba – Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders led a charge up “San Juan Hill” and defeated the Spanish

Spanish american war 189814
Spanish American War (1898)

  • Spanish American War Facts…

    • April 25, 1898 to August 13, 1898

    • Main Combatants: Spain vs. America

    • American President: William McKinley

    • Fought in Cuba and Philippines and Puerto Rico

    • More Americans died from disease, than from Spanish battles

Spanish american war 189815
Spanish American War (1898)

  • The Results of the Spanish American War…

    • The war lasted less than 4 months

    • The Americans won the war

    • About 5,000 died (most from disease)

    • Treaty of Paris ended the war

      • Cuba granted independence from Spain and Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the US for naval and coaling station

      • US gets the Philippines for $20 million

      • Spain gave the US…Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines

"Benevolent Assimilation" Proclamation of President William McKinley December 21, 1898

…It will be the duty of the commander of the forces of occupation to announce and proclaim in the most public manner that we come not as invaders or conquerors, but as friends, to protect the natives in their homes, in their employment, and in their personal and religious rights. All persons who . . . cooperate with the Government of the United States . . . will receive the reward of its support and protection. All others will be brought within the lawful rule we have assumed, with firmness if need be, but without severity, so far as may be possible…

War in the philippines
War in the Philippines McKinley December 21, 1898

  • America paid $20 million for the Philippines after the Spanish American War

  • Emilio Aguinaldo sets up provisional Philippine government and proclaims himself President

  • McKinley felt the Filipinos were unfit for self government and the Filipinos wanted their independence

  • 1899: Filipino rebels revolted – fighting a 3 year war against US for their independence

War in the philippines1
War in the Philippines McKinley December 21, 1898

  • America had 4,324 soldiers die and 3,000 wounded

  • Filipino’s had 20,000 soldiers die and about 250,000 wounded

  • The war cost America $400 million

  • In 1902 – American Congress passed the Philippine Government Act which states that Philippines would be ruled by a governor and two house legislatures

  • Invaded by Japan during WW II: total independence will not come to the Philippines until 1946

Puerto rico
Puerto Rico McKinley December 21, 1898

  • Made into a territory like Samoa and Cuba

  • Foraker Act: governor and upper house to be appointed by US and low house would be elected by Puerto Ricans

  • Jones Act of 1917: made Puerto Ricans, American citizens and they can elect both houses of their own legislature. (1 vote in America’s House of Representatives)

Puerto rico1
Puerto Rico McKinley December 21, 1898

  • 1952: becomes a Commonwealth, but America maintains ultimate sovereignty over the Latin American territory Puerto Rico

  • What America Governs: the United States Congress legislates over many fundamental aspects of Puerto Rican life, including citizenship, currency, postal service, foreign affairs, military defense, communications, labor relations, the environment, commerce, finance, health and welfare, and many others…Puerto Ricans CANNOT vote for the President

Panama s revolution
Panama’s Revolution McKinley December 21, 1898

  • Reasons for the Panama Canal:

    • An expanded navy was needed to defend overseas colonies

    • Quicker route to the northwest by joining the Atlantic & Pacific Ocean

  • Colombia refused the financial terms offered to them to buy the area

  • So President Roosevelt sent word to the people of Panama, that IF a revolution would take place against Colombia’s rule, the US Navy would be nearby to help. It would prevent Colombian troops from entering Panama

Panama s revolution1
Panama’s Revolution McKinley December 21, 1898

  • 1903: Hay-Herran Treaty is drafted (99 year lease over a six mile stretch across Panama in exchange for $10 million and 250,000 yearly rental)

  • Philippine Bunau-Varilla, former chief engineer for France asked the US to support a Panamanian Revolution

  • November 2, 1903: American gunboat arrives in Panama

  • November 4, 1903: US recognizes Panama and declare Panama an independent nation

Panama s revolution2
Panama’s Revolution McKinley December 21, 1898

  • November 6, 1903: US recognize Panama and begin negotiations and America builds the canal!

  • Colonel George W. Goethals completed the Panama Canal in 1913

  • President Roosevelt was the first President of the US to leave the United States while President. He visited the Panama Canal on August 15, 1914. The canal today still helps move people and goods all around the world

The great white fleet
The Great White Fleet McKinley December 21, 1898

  • 1907: President Theodore Roosevelt sends 4 destroyers and 16 battleships on a world cruise

  • Teddy Roosevelt’s Motto – “Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick” meant American diplomacy should be backed by a strong navy (the Great White Fleet) a threat of military action only if other nations don’t meet US demands

Open door policy
Open Door Policy McKinley December 21, 1898

  • 1899 American Secretary of State John Hay issued a series of policies stating Asian nations should share trading rights with America

  • Spheres of Influences – where a foreign nation has exclusive rights over trade, mines and railroads

Open door policy1
Open Door Policy McKinley December 21, 1898

  • Boxer Rebellion

    • Caused by Chinese resentment of foreigners

    • Society of Right and Harmonious Fists (Boxers) begins the rebellion

    • In 1900, they attacked Western missionaries and traders in northern China, killing 300 foreigners

    • The Boxer’s laid siege to foreign settlements in Beijing, China

    • The 55 day rebellion ends and international forces enter China

Imperialists vs anti imperialists
Imperialists vs. Anti-Imperialists McKinley December 21, 1898

  • After the Spanish American War it was greatly debated if we should ratify the Treaty of Paris. Those for it were called the Imperialists and those against it were Anti-Imperialists.

  • The Supreme Court in 1901 ruled “Annexed people don’t automatically have the rights of US citizens.”

The United States McKinley December 21, 1898needs colonies to compete economically.

Supporting an empire would be a financial burden.

It is Americas’ destiny to expand and

its duty to care for the weak and poor.

The U.S. should concentrate its energies on solving our problems at home

It’s only honorable to keep land that

Americans lost their lives for.

Nonwhite people can’t be assimilated into American society.

It’s a violation of democratic principles

not offering its people the same rights as those of American citizens.

To Abandon those territories makes the U.S. appear cowardly before the world.

Being a World Power would involve the U.S in more wars.

To be a true World Power, the U.S. needs colonies and Naval bases.