The Tudors Family Rivalries Continue
Henry’s VIII’s Will 1534 Succession Act acknowledged rights of Mary and Elizabeth, though maintaining their “illegitimacy” and empowered Henry to determine further succession by will. The will in December 1546 gave precedence (after Henry’s children) to descendants of his younger sister Mary and then to the descendants of Margaret of Scotland.
27 January 1547 Henry dies, but it is kept secret for 3 days while councilors Hertford and Paget took steps to alter the will. Instead of collective government by named council of equals, Paget claimed Henry’s real intention was to make Edward Seymour Protector or virtual regent, and that the councilors should receive new lands and titles.
The First Successor: • Nine year old Edward VI • His Regency: Thomas Cranmer, Northumberland and Somerset. They pushed toward more Protestant doctrines.
New Acts of Parliament • Clergy could marry • Elimination veneration of images • Book of Common Prayer • Two sacraments allowed
The Next Queen is . . . Before Edward VI died he agreed to make Lady Jane Grey his successor. But the principal of hereditary monarchy said the rightful heir is Mary I
True Line of Succession Lady Jane Grey reigned July 6-19 1553. Northumberland, supporter of Lady Jane, set out to fight supporters for Mary to throne. Her support grew too much that Northumberland had to capitulate in Cambridge. Mary’s coup was successful and both lost their heads.
QUEEN MARY I -She proclaimed herself queen on July 10 1553 -It was a near-bloodless accession -Over 800 went into exile -After 1555, at least 280 people were executed for heresy -Parliament obediently appealed laws to restore England to a Catholic country.
Spanish Marriage 1554 Treaty for marriage between Mary and Philip II concluded in January. Philip could not inherit the crown. Critics still feared Spanish domination. (the loss of Calais to the French)
Wyatt’s Rebellion 1554 After the announcement of Spanish marriage, Sir Thomas Wyatt raised 3,000 men to march on London. Queen Mary rallied supporters in London and rebels were repulsed. In the purge following Wyatt’s execution, Jane Grey beheaded then came calls for Elizabeth’s death
Bloody Mary Yes she did burn Cranmer and a few hundred Protestant extremists in Smithfield. It was Protestant propaganda that coined the “Bloody Mary” and the “fires of Smithfield”
Queen Elizabeth I Her reign began in 1558 Was successful in both domestic and foreign policy. With her advisor Sir William Cecil, they looked for a religious settlement “The Elizabethan compromise” 1559 New Act of Supremacy
Challenge for the Queen • The religious extremists • The marriage question • The continuing agitation to Spain • Controlling Parliament • Plots for assassinations/coups • Family rivalry
Mary Queen of Scots Elizabeth’s, cousin A French Catholic Queen in Scotland Public scandal: Her lover, Bothwell accused of killing her husband, Lord Darnley. Bothwell was acquitted. So she can marry Bothwell
The Loss of a Queen Outraged Protestants force Mary to surrender the throne to her one year old son, James VI of Scotland. Elizabeth allows her cousin to stay in England, under house arrest for nineteen years. In 1583 and 1586 Walsingham uncovers more plots against Elizabeth. (Babington) February 1587, the monarch lost her head for treason