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CGC1D-Physical Connections. Weather & Climate. Weather vs. Climate. Weather Generally defined as the condition of the atmosphere over a short period of time Usually 1 day. Climate Condition of the atmosphere considered over a long period of time. Factors Affecting Weather & Climate.

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weather vs climate
Weather vs. Climate


  • Generally defined as the condition of the atmosphere over a short period of time
  • Usually 1 day


  • Condition of the atmosphere considered over a long period of time
factors affecting weather climate
Factors Affecting Weather & Climate

6 major factors that affect weather and climate.

They can be on two different scales:



the 6 factors
The 6 Factors
  • Latitude
  • Ocean currents
  • Winds and air masses
  • Elevation (altitude)
  • Relief (presence of physical features)
  • Nearness to large bodies of water
defining the 6 factors
Defining the 6 Factors
  • Class will be divided into 6 groups
  • Each group will be assigned 1 weather/climate factor
  • Task:
    • create an overhead presentation on how your group’s factors affects weather/climate
  • Things to include:
    • Is your factor global or local (both)?
    • Where in Canada does this factor play a role? (particular landform region? Province? Etc.)
    • Are there different effects in different seasons?
    • Draw a diagram to help explain the concept
  • Textbook pp. 145-153
  • Timeline: 25 minutes
  • As latitude increases (north and south of the equator) the temperature decreases
  • Has to do with solar radiation and the angle of incidence
    • angle the suns rays hit the surface of the earth
elevation altitude
Elevation (Altitude)
  • The higher the elevation, the cooler the temperature
  • Air expands as it rises from the earth’s surface.
    • The air expands because the pressure on the outside of the air mass is less than that of the rising air mass.
    • As the air expands there is more space for molecules to move around in so their energy is transferred, resulting in cooling of the air mass.
  • Air cools at approximately 1degC/100m
ocean currents
Ocean Currents
  • If ocean currents are warm, they will keep both winter and summer conditions on the land warmer than expected (i.e. the Gulf Stream).
  • Cold currents such as the Labrador Current have the opposite effect.
winds and air masses
Winds and Air Masses
  • Winds can move cool air to moderate a hot area, or moist air to bring rain to a dry area.
  • Basic principle – they move dense, heavy air from high pressure areas towards areas of low pressure where the air is less dense, lighter and rising.
  • Air masses take on the characteristics of the surface they are sitting over (i.e. an air mass over and ocean in the tropics will be warm and moist)
  • Physical features have a considerable influence on weather and climate
  • Mountains can act as a barrier where the windward side would get a lot of rain and the leeward side would receive little rain
  • Flat plains enable cold air, dry air from the north to reach far into North America
bodies of water
Bodies of Water
  • Oceans and Great Lakes
  • Act in the opposite was of air masses
  • Water heats and cools much slower than land
  • Lakes tend to be cool when the land is warm and vise versa
  • Moderating effect