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Meteorology. Air Masses Weather Systems Gathering Weather Data Weather Analysis. Chap. 12. Air Masses – 12.1. Objectives. Compare and contrast weather and climate Analyze how imbalances in the heating of Earth’s surface create weather Describe how and where air masses form.

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meteorology

Meteorology

Air Masses

Weather Systems

Gathering Weather Data

Weather Analysis

Chap. 12

slide2

Air Masses – 12.1

Objectives

  • Compare and contrast weather and climate
  • Analyze how imbalances in the heating of Earth’s surface create weather
  • Describe how and where air masses form

The Weather Channel

slide4

Meteorology

Meteor- means ‘high in the air’

Meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena.

slide5

Meteorology

  • Hydrometeors

Any form of water in the atmosphere

slide6

Meteorology

  • Hydrometeors
  • Lithometeors

Solid material in the atmosphere: smoke, dust, condensation nuclei

slide7

Meteorology

  • Hydrometeors
  • Lithometeors
  • Electrometeors

Electricity in the atmosphere: thunder and lightning

slide9

Weather vs. Climate

Weather is the current state of the atmosphere (short-term)

slide10

Weather vs. Climate

Weather is the current state of the atmosphere (short-term)

Climate is long-term variation of the atmosphere

slide12

Energy to Earth

  • Energy gets to Earth via .

Energy is transmitted through spacevia light

slide13

Energy to Earth

  • Energy gets to Earth via radiation.
  • Some energy is absorbed, while some is .
slide14

Energy to Earth

  • Energy gets to Earth via radiation.
  • Some energy is absorbed, whilesome is reflected.
slide15

Energy to Earth

  • Energy gets to Earth via radiation.
  • Some energy is absorbed, whilesome is reflected.
  • Not all places receive equal radiation.

Why not ??

slide16

Energy to Earth

  • Energy gets to Earth via radiation.
  • Some energy is absorbed, whilesome is reflected.
  • Not all places receive equal radiation.
  • When the sunlight strikes the Earth perpendicularly the maximum energy is transferred.
slide18

Energy to Earth

  • Energy gets to Earth via radiation.
  • Some energy is absorbed, whilesome is reflected.
  • Not all places receive equal radiation.
  • When the sunlight strikes the Earth perpendicularly the maximum energy is transferred.
  • Implications
slide19

Implications

  • More heat is transmitted from the sun in ____.
  • the morning
  • the afternoon
  • the evening
slide20

Implications

  • More heat is transmitted from the sun in ____.
  • the morning
  • the afternoon
  • the evening
  • More heat is transmitted from the sun at____.
  • the equator
  • the poles
  • the point between the equator and the poles
slide21

Implications

  • More heat is transmitted from the sun in ____.
  • the morning
  • the afternoon
  • the evening
  • More heat is transmitted from the sun at____.
  • the equator
  • the poles
  • the point between the equator and the poles
slide22

Energy to Earth

  • Energy gets to Earth via radiation.
  • Some energy is absorbed, which some is reflected.
  • Not all places receive equal radiation.
  • Energy that reaches the Earth is moved by the _____ and .
slide23

Energy to Earth

  • Energy gets to Earth via radiation.
  • Some energy is absorbed, which some is reflected.
  • Not all places receive equal radiation.
  • Energy that reaches the Earth is moved by the water and air.
slide24

Air Masses

A large dome of air having similar horizontal temperature and moisture properties.

slide25

Air Masses

  • Source Region
slide26

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • An air mass that forms over a polar region will be ____.
slide27

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • An air mass that forms over a polar region will be cold.
  • An air mass that forms over a tropic region will be _____ and __ _.
slide28

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • An air mass that forms over a polar region will be cold.
  • An air mass that forms over a tropic region will be warm and humid.
slide29

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • Classifying Air Masses
slide30

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • Classifying Air Masses
  • cT – Continental Tropic

Warm and dry

slide31

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • Classifying Air Masses
  • cT – Continental Tropic
  • mT – Maritime Tropic

Warm and humid

slide32

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • Classifying Air Masses
  • cT – Continental Tropic
  • mT – Maritime Tropic
  • cP – Continental Polar

Cold and dry

slide33

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • Classifying Air Masses
  • cT – Continental Tropic
  • mT – Maritime Tropic
  • cP – Continental Polar
  • mP – Maritime Polar

Cold and humid

slide34

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • Classifying Air Masses
  • cT – Continental Tropic
  • mT – Maritime Tropic
  • cP – Continental Polar
  • mP – Maritime Polar
  • A - Arctic

Cold and dry

slide36

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • Classifying Air Masses
  • Air masses are also classified by air mass stability

Stability is the resistance to vertical movement of air particles

slide37

Air Masses

  • Source Region
  • Classifying Air Masses
  • Air masses are also classified by air mass stability
  • Air masses are modified while they move.

Eventually they lose their original characteristics

slide39

Air Masses – 12.1

Objectives

  • Describe how the rotation of Earth affects the movement of air
  • Compare and contrast wind systems
  • Identify the various types of fronts

http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange1/08_1.shtml

slide41

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
slide42

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Warm air .

This is observed in the location that receives the greatest amount of solar radiation

slide43

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Warm air rises.
  • Cool air .

This occurs as air loses energy in the upper troposphere.

slide44

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Warm air rises.
  • Cool air falls.

This occurs as air loses energy in the upper troposphere.

slide45

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface
slide46

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface
  • Air moves North or South in various Hadley cells
slide47

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface
  • Air moves North or South in various Hadley cells
  • The location where air comes together between the tropics is called the zone (ITCZ)
slide48

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface
  • Air moves North or South in various Hadley cells
  • The location where air comes together between the tropics is called the intertropicalconvergencezone (ITCZ)
slide49

Intertropical Convergence Zone

http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange1

slide50

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface
  • Movement of air relative to Earth’s motion
slide51

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface
  • Movement of air relative to Earth’s motion
  • Air doesn’t travel straight
slide52

A Global Illustration

  • Vertical movement of air
  • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface
  • Movement of air relative to Earth’s motion
  • Air doesn’t travel straight
  • It turns due to the Coriolis effect
slide53

Coriolis effect

Perception of an East or West deflection of air currents due to the rotation of the Earth.

In the Northern hemisphere air currents are deflected .

In the Southern hemisphere air currents are deflected .

slide54

Coriolis effect

Perception of an East or West deflection of air currents due to the rotation of the Earth.

In the Northern hemisphere air currents are deflected right.

In the Southern hemisphere air currents are deflected left.

slide55

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
slide56

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Trade winds (Northeast & Southeast)

Occur between the equator and 30ºN or 30ºS

slide57

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Trade winds (Northeast & Southeast)
  • Westerlies

Occur between 30º and 60º (in North & South). They blow toward the .

slide58

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Trade winds (Northeast & Southeast)
  • Westerlies

Occur between 30º and 60º (in North & South). They blow toward the East. (From the West)

slide59

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Trade winds (Northeast & Southeast)
  • Westerlies
  • Polar Easterlies

Occur between 60º and 90º (in North & South). They blow toward the ______.

slide60

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Trade winds (Northeast & Southeast)
  • Westerlies
  • Polar Easterlies
  • Doldrums

It’s pretty depressing to sail here.

slide61

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Trade winds (Northeast & Southeast)
  • Westerlies
  • Polar Easterlies
  • Doldrums
  • Horse Latitudes

Watch out for horses!

slide62

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Moisture
slide63

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Moisture
  • In areas of pressure there is rain.
slide64

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Moisture
  • In areas of low pressure there is rain.
  • In areas of high pressure it is .
slide65

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Moisture
  • In areas of low pressure there is rain.
  • In areas of high pressure it is dry.
slide66

A Global Illustration

  • Global wind systems
  • Moisture
  • Jet Streams
slide67

Jet Stream

Upper-level air winds

Caused by difference in temp. & pressure between equator and poles

High speed (some over 110 mph)

Move from West to East

slide69

Fronts

Boundary between air masses with different densities.

slide70

Fronts

  • Cold Front

Symbol:

direction

  • Cold air displaces warm air
slide71

Fronts

  • Cold Front

Symbol:

direction

  • Cold air displaces warm air
  • Warm air rises the steep boundary
slide72

Fronts

  • Cold Front

Symbol:

direction

  • Cold air displaces warm air
  • Warm air rises the steep boundary
  • Brings thunderstorms/rain
slide73

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front

direction

Symbol:

slide74

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front

direction

Symbol:

  • Warm air moves slowly over cold air mass
slide75

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front

direction

Symbol:

  • Warm air moves slowly over cold air mass
  • Extensive clouds formed with precipitation
slide76

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front
  • Stationary Front
slide77

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front
  • Stationary Front
  • Warm air mass collides with cold mass
slide78

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front
  • Stationary Front
  • Warm air mass collides with cold mass
  • Neither air mass pushes harder than the other
slide79

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front
  • Stationary Front
  • Warm air mass collides with cold mass
  • Neither air mass pushes harder than the other
  • May bring days of cloudy/rainy weather
slide80

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front
  • Stationary Front
  • Occluded Front

Symbol:

direction

slide81

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front
  • Stationary Front
  • Occluded Front

Symbol:

direction

  • Cold air overtakes another cold front
slide82

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front
  • Stationary Front
  • Occluded Front

Symbol:

direction

  • Cold air overtakes another cold front
  • Often occurs in later stages of storm
slide83

Fronts

  • Cold Front
  • Warm Front
  • Stationary Front
  • Occluded Front

Symbol:

direction

  • Cold air overtakes another cold front
  • Often occurs in later stages of storm
  • Precipitation may occur on both sides
slide84

Pressure

  • High Pressure
slide85

Pressure

  • High Pressure
  • Indicates air is _____
slide86

Pressure

  • High Pressure
  • Indicates air is falling
  • Coriolis effect turns air ________
slide87

Pressure

  • High Pressure
  • Indicates air is falling
  • Coriolis effect turns air clockwise
  • Symbol
slide88

Pressure

  • High Pressure
  • Indicates air is falling
  • Coriolis effect turns air clockwise
  • Symbol
slide89

Pressure

  • High Pressure
  • Low Pressure
slide90

Pressure

  • High Pressure
  • Low Pressure
  • Indicates air is _____
slide91

Pressure

  • High Pressure
  • Low Pressure
  • Indicates air is rising
  • Coriolis effect turns air ______________
slide92

Pressure

  • High Pressure
  • Low Pressure
  • Indicates air is rising
  • Coriolis effect turns air counterclockwise
  • Symbol
slide93

Pressure

  • High Pressure
  • Low Pressure
  • Indicates air is rising
  • Coriolis effect turns air counterclockwise
  • Symbol
gathering weather data 12 3

Objectives

A balloon launch from the S. Pole.

  • Recognize the importance of accurate weather data
  • Describe the technology used to collect weather data.
  • Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of weather observation systems

Gathering Weather Data – 12.3

slide97

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
slide98

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Indicates the of the air.
slide99

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Indicates the temperature of the air.
  • How does it work?
slide100

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
slide101

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Indicates the _______ of the air.
slide102

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Indicates the pressure of the air.
  • How does it work?
slide103

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Anemometer
slide104

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Anemometer
  • Indicates the speed of the .
  • How does it work?
slide105

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Anemometer
  • Indicates the speed of the wind.
  • How does it work?
slide106

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Anemometer
  • Hygrometer
slide107

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Anemometer
  • Hygrometer
  • Indicates the ______ _______ of the air.
slide108

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Anemometer
  • Hygrometer
  • Indicates the relative humidity of the air.
  • How does it work?
slide109

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Anemometer
  • Hygrometer
  • Ceilometer
slide110

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Anemometer
  • Hygrometer
  • Ceilometer
  • Indicates the height of .
slide111

Surface Data

  • Thermometer
  • Barometer
  • Anemometer
  • Hygrometer
  • Ceilometer
  • Indicates the height of clouds.
  • How does it work?
slide113

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
slide114

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
  • Radiosonde

A package of sensors that collect atmospheric information in the upper atmosphere

slide115

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
  • Radiosonde

Measures:

slide116

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
  • Radiosonde

Measures:

  • Temperature
slide117

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
  • Radiosonde

Measures:

  • Temperature
  • Pressure
slide118

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
  • Radiosonde

Measures:

  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Humidity
slide119

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
  • Radiosonde

Measures:

  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Humidity
  • Wind speed & direction
slide120

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
  • Radiosonde
  • Radar

Radio detecting and ranging

slide121

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
  • Radiosonde
  • Radar
  • Doppler Radar

Detect the speed of rain drops as they move toward/away from station

slide123

Doppler Effect

  • The waves ahead of a moving object are compressed, and wavelength is shortened.
slide124

Doppler Effect

  • The waves ahead of a moving object are compressed, and wavelength is shortened.
  • The waves behind a moving object are depressed or elongated.
slide125

Upper-level Data

  • Weather balloons
  • Radiosonde
  • Radar
  • Doppler Radar
  • Weather Satellites

Take photos (visible and infrared light) of Earth.

slide127

Weather Analysis – 12.4

Objectives

  • Analyze a basic surface weather chart
  • Distinguish between analog and digital forecasting
  • Describe problems with long-term forecasts
slide128

Station Model

A condensed compilation of a variety of weather data.

slide129

Station Model

See page 915

slide130

Station Model

  • Temperature
slide131

Station Model

  • Temperature
  • Dew point

Temperature at which water vapor condenses

slide132

Station Model

  • Temperature
  • Dew point
  • Precipitation

Rain, Snow, Drizzle, Showers, Fog, Thunderstorm, etc.

slide133

Station Model

  • Temperature
  • Dew point
  • Precipitation
  • Cloud cover

Fraction of the sky that is covered.

slide134

Station Model

  • Temperature
  • Dew point
  • Precipitation
  • Cloud cover
  • Wind

This shows a wind that is 25 knots FROM the southwest

slide135

Station Model

  • Temperature
  • Dew point
  • Precipitation
  • Cloud cover
  • Wind

10 + 10 + 5 knots

This shows a wind that is 25 knots FROM the southwest

slide137

Surface Analysis

  • Isopleths

Lines connecting point of equal value

slide138

Surface Analysis

  • Isopleths
  • Isobars

“same ”

slide139

Surface Analysis

  • Isopleths
  • Isobars

“same pressure”

slide140

Surface Analysis

  • Isopleths
  • Isobars
  • Isotherms

“same ”

slide141

Surface Analysis

  • Isopleths
  • Isobars
  • Isotherms

“same temperature”

slide142

Surface Analysis

  • Isopleths
  • Isobars
  • Isotherms
  • These lines are like lines of elevation
slide143

Surface Analysis

  • Isopleths
  • Isobars
  • Isotherms
  • These lines are like lines of elevation
  • Many lines close together represent steep transition
slide144

Forecasting

Predicting the future weather

slide145

Forecasting

  • Historically
slide146

Forecasting

  • Historically
  • Data was extrapolated from the weather of the past few days
slide147

Forecasting

  • Historically
  • Data was extrapolated from the weather of the past few days
  • Not very accurate
slide148

Forecasting

  • Historically
  • Digital Forecasting
slide149

Forecasting

  • Historically
  • Digital Forecasting
  • Uses computers to analyze lots of variables.
slide150

Forecasting

  • Historically
  • Digital Forecasting
  • Uses computers to analyze lots of variables.
  • The higher the density, the better the forecast.
slide151

Forecasting

  • Historically
  • Digital Forecasting
  • Analog Forecasting

Looks for analogous conditions.

slide152

Forecasting

  • Historically
  • Digital Forecasting
  • Analog Forecasting
  • Compares data to past weather that had similar characteristics.
slide153

Forecasting

  • Historically
  • Digital Forecasting
  • Analog Forecasting
  • Compares data to past weather that had similar characteristics.
  • Use to create broad, season forecasts.
slide154

Forecasting

  • Long-term forecasting
slide155

Forecasting

  • Long-term forecasting
  • Accuracy of a forecast decreases with time.
slide156

Forecasting

  • Long-term forecasting
  • Accuracy of a forecast decreases with time.
  • There are too many variable to create a good forecast