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  1. Meteorology Air Masses Weather Systems Gathering Weather Data Weather Analysis Chap. 12

  2. Air Masses – 12.1 Objectives • Compare and contrast weather and climate • Analyze how imbalances in the heating of Earth’s surface create weather • Describe how and where air masses form The Weather Channel

  3. Meteorology

  4. Meteorology Meteor- means ‘high in the air’ Meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena.

  5. Meteorology • Hydrometeors Any form of water in the atmosphere

  6. Meteorology • Hydrometeors • Lithometeors Solid material in the atmosphere: smoke, dust, condensation nuclei

  7. Meteorology • Hydrometeors • Lithometeors • Electrometeors Electricity in the atmosphere: thunder and lightning

  8. Weather vs. Climate

  9. Weather vs. Climate Weather is the current state of the atmosphere (short-term)

  10. Weather vs. Climate Weather is the current state of the atmosphere (short-term) Climate is long-term variation of the atmosphere

  11. Energy to Earth

  12. Energy to Earth • Energy gets to Earth via . Energy is transmitted through spacevia light

  13. Energy to Earth • Energy gets to Earth via radiation. • Some energy is absorbed, while some is .

  14. Energy to Earth • Energy gets to Earth via radiation. • Some energy is absorbed, whilesome is reflected.

  15. Energy to Earth • Energy gets to Earth via radiation. • Some energy is absorbed, whilesome is reflected. • Not all places receive equal radiation. Why not ??

  16. Energy to Earth • Energy gets to Earth via radiation. • Some energy is absorbed, whilesome is reflected. • Not all places receive equal radiation. • When the sunlight strikes the Earth perpendicularly the maximum energy is transferred.

  17. Unequal distribution of Sun’s radiation

  18. Energy to Earth • Energy gets to Earth via radiation. • Some energy is absorbed, whilesome is reflected. • Not all places receive equal radiation. • When the sunlight strikes the Earth perpendicularly the maximum energy is transferred. • Implications

  19. Implications • More heat is transmitted from the sun in ____. • the morning • the afternoon • the evening

  20. Implications • More heat is transmitted from the sun in ____. • the morning • the afternoon • the evening • More heat is transmitted from the sun at____. • the equator • the poles • the point between the equator and the poles

  21. Implications • More heat is transmitted from the sun in ____. • the morning • the afternoon • the evening • More heat is transmitted from the sun at____. • the equator • the poles • the point between the equator and the poles

  22. Energy to Earth • Energy gets to Earth via radiation. • Some energy is absorbed, which some is reflected. • Not all places receive equal radiation. • Energy that reaches the Earth is moved by the _____ and .

  23. Energy to Earth • Energy gets to Earth via radiation. • Some energy is absorbed, which some is reflected. • Not all places receive equal radiation. • Energy that reaches the Earth is moved by the water and air.

  24. Air Masses A large dome of air having similar horizontal temperature and moisture properties.

  25. Air Masses • Source Region

  26. Air Masses • Source Region • An air mass that forms over a polar region will be ____.

  27. Air Masses • Source Region • An air mass that forms over a polar region will be cold. • An air mass that forms over a tropic region will be _____ and __ _.

  28. Air Masses • Source Region • An air mass that forms over a polar region will be cold. • An air mass that forms over a tropic region will be warm and humid.

  29. Air Masses • Source Region • Classifying Air Masses

  30. Air Masses • Source Region • Classifying Air Masses • cT – Continental Tropic Warm and dry

  31. Air Masses • Source Region • Classifying Air Masses • cT – Continental Tropic • mT – Maritime Tropic Warm and humid

  32. Air Masses • Source Region • Classifying Air Masses • cT – Continental Tropic • mT – Maritime Tropic • cP – Continental Polar Cold and dry

  33. Air Masses • Source Region • Classifying Air Masses • cT – Continental Tropic • mT – Maritime Tropic • cP – Continental Polar • mP – Maritime Polar Cold and humid

  34. Air Masses • Source Region • Classifying Air Masses • cT – Continental Tropic • mT – Maritime Tropic • cP – Continental Polar • mP – Maritime Polar • A - Arctic Cold and dry

  35. Air Masses over the U.S.

  36. Air Masses • Source Region • Classifying Air Masses • Air masses are also classified by air mass stability Stability is the resistance to vertical movement of air particles

  37. Air Masses • Source Region • Classifying Air Masses • Air masses are also classified by air mass stability • Air masses are modified while they move. Eventually they lose their original characteristics

  38. The End

  39. Air Masses – 12.1 Objectives • Describe how the rotation of Earth affects the movement of air • Compare and contrast wind systems • Identify the various types of fronts http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange1/08_1.shtml

  40. A Global Illustration

  41. A Global Illustration • Vertical movement of air

  42. A Global Illustration • Vertical movement of air • Warm air . This is observed in the location that receives the greatest amount of solar radiation

  43. A Global Illustration • Vertical movement of air • Warm air rises. • Cool air . This occurs as air loses energy in the upper troposphere.

  44. A Global Illustration • Vertical movement of air • Warm air rises. • Cool air falls. This occurs as air loses energy in the upper troposphere.

  45. A Global Illustration • Vertical movement of air • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface

  46. A Global Illustration • Vertical movement of air • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface • Air moves North or South in various Hadley cells

  47. A Global Illustration • Vertical movement of air • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface • Air moves North or South in various Hadley cells • The location where air comes together between the tropics is called the zone (ITCZ)

  48. A Global Illustration • Vertical movement of air • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface • Air moves North or South in various Hadley cells • The location where air comes together between the tropics is called the intertropicalconvergencezone (ITCZ)

  49. Intertropical Convergence Zone http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange1

  50. A Global Illustration • Vertical movement of air • Movement of air across the Earth’s surface • Movement of air relative to Earth’s motion