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New team. Project Diffusion. The effect of gravitational stress on the diffusion of liquids . Part 1: Vehicle. Major Milestone Schedule. GANTT Chart. Mission Profile Chart. Event 3: Apogee at 16s, 4502ft. Coast. Drogue descent.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

New team

ProjectDiffusion

The effect of gravitational stress on the diffusion of liquids.

slide5

Mission Profile Chart

Event 3:

Apogee at

16s, 4502ft

Coast

Drogue descent

Apogee prediction updated based on data from full scale full-impulse flight (Cd=0.65):

4502ft

Event 2:

Burnout at

2.24s, 1000ft

Event 4:

Main parachute deployment at

84s, 700ft

Event 5:

Landing at

110s, 0ft

Event 1:

Ignition at 0s, 0ft

slide6

Vehicle Success Criteria

  • Motor ignition
  • Stable flight
  • Altitude of 5,280 feet AGL reached but not exceeded(most current prediction: 4502ft)
  • Both drogue and main parachute deployed
  • Vehicle returns to the ground safely with minimal damage
  • Safe recovery of the booster
slide7

Vehicle Drawings

CP 83.1” from nosecone

CG 65.6” from nosecone

Static margin 5.5 calibers

Length 108”

Diameter 5.5”(body tube), 4”(booster)

Liftoff Weight 21 lbs with AT-K1050W

Motor Aerotech K1050W

slide9

Construction Materials

  • Body:5.5”/4.0” LOC Precision fiber tubing
  • Fins: 1/32” G-10 fiberglass + 1/8” balsa sandwich, TTW mounted
  • Couplers: LOC Precision with stiffeners
  • Bulkheads, centering rings: 1/2” plywood
  • Motor mounts: 54mm Kraft phenolic tubing
  • Nosecone: Plastic nose cone
  • Rail buttons: standard nylon rail buttons
  • Motor retention system: Aeropack screw-on motor retainer
  • Anchors: 1/4" stainless steel U-Bolts
  • Epoxy: Locktite epoxy
slide10

Motor Selection

  • We selected the AT-K1050W 54mm motor to propel our rocket to reach, but not exceed an altitude of 5280ft AGL
  • The AT-K1050W motor provides an appropriate thrust to weight ratio for our vehicle (12.2).

Mach delay of 4 seconds will be set on both deployment altimeters

(the setting was successfully tested during full impulse test flight)

slide12

Altitude Profile

Apogee 4502ft, 16s

Cd = 0.65

(from flight data)

slide13

Acceleration Profile

Max acceleration:

16g

slide14

Velocity Profile

Maximum velocity

507 mph

(Mach number: 0.66)

slide17

Ejection Charge Calculations

Wp=dP*V/(R*T)

  • Wp - ejection charge weight [g]
  • dP - ejection pressure (15 [psi])
  • V - free volume [in3]
  • R - universal gas constant (22.16 [ft-lb oR-1 lb-mol-1])
  • T - combustion gas temperature (3,307 [oR])
slide18

Ejection Charges

Charges have been finalized via static ejection tests.

Per NASA recommendation we have upgraded our backup charges by 25% and delayed their activation. If primary charge fails, backup charge will “try harder”, otherwise it fires harmlessly in open air.

slide22

Verification Plan

  • Tested Components
  • C1: Body (including construction techniques)
  • C2: Altimeter
  • C3: Accelerometer
  • C4: Parachutes
  • C5: Fins
  • C6: Payload
  • C7: Ejection Charges
  • C8: Launch System
  • C9: Motor Mount
  • C10: Beacons
  • C11: Shock Cords and Anchors
  • C12: Rocket Stability
slide23

Verification Plan

  • Verification Tests
  • V1 Integrity Test: force applied; verifies durability.
  • V2 Parachute Drop Test: tests parachute functionality.
  • V3 Tension Test: force applied to shock cords; tests durability.
  • V4 Prototype Flight: tests feasibility of vehicle with scale model.
  • V5 Functionality Test: tests basic functionality of device on ground.
  • V6 Altimeter Ground Test: simulate altitude changes; verifies preset altitude events fire.
  • V7 Electronic Deployment Test: tests that electronics ignite deployment charges.
  • V8 Ejection Test: tests that deployment charges can deploy parachutes/separate components.
  • V9 Computer Simulation: RockSim predicts behavior of launch vehicle.
  • V10 Integration Test: payload fits smoothly and snuggly into vehicle, and withstands flight stresses.
slide27

Half Impulse Launch Objectives

  • Test drogue and main parachute deployment
  • Test flight electronics (altimeters and ejection charges)
  • Test separation of body tubes at ejection
  • Test validity of simulation results
  • Test rocket stability
  • Test durability of rocket
slide28

Half Impulse Launch Results

Calculated Cd :

0.61

Apogee for full scale impulse vehicle (Cd=0.61):

4718 ft

  • Apogee- 3325ft
    • Rocksim prediction 3396ft
  • Time to apogee- 13.4s
  • Apogee events
    • Drogue deployment
  • Main event
    • Main parachute deploys at 700ft
slide29

Recorded Altitude Profile

Apogee : 3325ft at 13.4s

(drogue deployment)

Drogue Descent: measured rate 43fps (average)

Main parachute: deploys at 500ft

Final Descent: measured rate 21fps(average)

slide30

Observed Problems

Because of a construction error, our fin assembly separated from the rest of the rocket at apogee (due to deployment shock). The problem has been fixed by adding 12 screws.

Our drogue parachute was by mistake tied far from its upper anchor point (this increases the chance of drogue not leaving the body). The problem has been solved by moving the drogue closer to its upper anchor point.

slide33

Full Impulse Launch Objectives

  • Test drogue and main parachute deployment
  • Test flight electronics (altimeters and ejection charges)
  • Test separation of body tubes at ejection
  • Verify the flight apogee will not exceed 1 mile
  • Verify fixes from half-impulse flight
  • Verify final predictions
slide34

Full Impulse Launch Results

Calculated Cd :

0.65

Apogee for full scale vehicle (Cd=0.65): 4502 ft

  • Apogee- 4502ft
    • Rocksim prediction 4718ft
  • Time to apogee- 16s
  • Apogee events
    • Drogue deployment
  • Main event
    • Main parachute deploys at 700ft
slide35

Recorded Altitude Profile

Apogee : 4502ft at 16.00s

(drogue deployment)

Drogue Descent: measured rate 54fps (average)

Main parachute: deploys at 700ft

Final Descent: measured rate 23fps (average)

slide36

Problems Observed

Our rocket landed in the tree and we have lost some of its parts. This results in following issues:

* MAWD altimeters are no longer available and we will be replacing them with StratoLogger altimeters. While we will have no opportunity to test the StratoLogger units ourselves before the launch in Huntsville, our sister team has used StratoLoggers with success during their full impulse test flight.

slide37

Delivery System Summary

  • Apparent coefficient of drag Cd=0.65
  • Apogee prediction 4,500ft
  • Primary motor choice AT-K1050W
  • Work to be done
  • Improve surface finish (decrease Cd)
  • Remove surface protrusions (decrease Cd)
  • Search and pursue minor weight savings
  • Repair E-bay
slide38

Recovery System Summary

To further reduce the drift, we’d rather use a smaller drogue than to decrease the size of the main parachute (the booster impact energy is near the allowed maximum of 75ft-lbf)

  • Work to be done
  • Replace lost parachute
  • Replace lost shockcord
  • Replaced possibly damaged altimeters
  • Repeat static ejection tests
slide40

Payload Summary

We will investigate the effects of acceleration and vibrations during flight on the diffusion of dye into liquids using digital imaging.

slide41

Payload Objectives

  • Determine the effect of acceleration on the diffusion of dye into liquids
  • Determine the effect of vibrations on the diffusion of dye into liquids
slide42

Payload Success Criteria

  • Collected data from the camera and accelerometers is accurate
  • Vessels containing liquid do not leak
  • Dye is injected into the liquid correctly
  • Images from camera are received
  • Acceleration is recorded
  • Payload is recovered
slide43

Payload Assembly

Battery

Camera

LED

Syringe

Servo

slide44

Payload Prototype

Battery

Camera

LED

Syringe

Servo

slide45

Payload Electronics

  • Accelerometer / G-Switch module
  • LIS331 3D accelerometer
    • +/- 24g, 16 bit resolution
    • Digital interface
    • 1000Hz maximum sampling rate
  • GS21 G-switch (2.1g)
  • Powered by payload computer (3.3V)
  • Connected by a single ribbon cable
  • Payload Computer
  • Drives injector servos
  • Collects and stores acceleration data
  • Monitors accelerometer for liftoff detection
  • Monitors G-Switch for liftoff detection
  • Distributed regulated voltages
    • 3.3V for sensors
    • 5.0V for servos
  • Powered from a single pack of 6AA batteries
  • 80MHz, 32KB RAM, 8 core processor, 27 I/O pins
  • 128KB of EEPROM, 96KB available for data storage
slide47

Nikon AW100 Camera

  • Selection Rationale
  • Fits inside the payload chamber
  • Waterproof (in case of payload damage)
  • Minimum focus is 1cm (0.4”)
  • Full HD video 1920 x 1080 @ 30fps
  • Sufficient memory/battery capacity
  • Within the budget of our project ($300)
  • Robust design (designed for extreme sports)
slide48

Integration of Payload Modules

Vertical module

Horizontal module

Horizontal module

slide49

Experiment Sequence

Launch and Boost

  • Dye is injected into the solution
  • Camcorder records the diffusion process

The experiment chamber is brightly lit using LEDs to prevent any exposure problems during recording

slide50

Experiment Sequence

Coast and Apogee

The camcorder continues to record the diffusion process until the vehicle reaches apogee.

Accelerometer records acceleration data.

slide51

Experiment Sequence

Data Analysis

The pictures taken during the flight are analyzed

slide52

Controls

  • Preflight ground tests
    • Camcorder takes overhead pictures of Petri dish
    • Camcorder takes side view pictures of water tank

Control Group (stationary)

Experimental Group

slide53

Variables

  • Independent variables

a Acceleration

t Time after dye is released (flight time)

  • Dependent Variables

R Rate of diffusion (diffusion front speed)

P Pattern of diffusion (qualitative classification)

slide54

Correlations

  • R = f(a) Rate of diffusion in relation to acceleration
  • R = f(t) Rate of diffusion in relation to time after dye isreleased
  • P = f(a) Pattern of diffusion in relation to acceleration
  • P = f(t) Pattern of diffusion in relation to time after dye is released
slide56

Image Analysis

Voids

Measure color saturation in each pixel

Boundary rectangle: X pixels by Y pixels

slide57

Image Analysis

To quantify the results of our experiment, we have selected the following characteristics to measure. Computerized digital image analysis will be used and we expect to process over 7 billion pixels using a multicore Linux machine.

slide58

Instrumentation and Measurement

  • We will use commercially available accelerometers and altimeters
  • The sensors will be calibrated
  • We will do extensive testing on the ground prior to the rocket launch
slide59

Verification Plan

Tested Components

  • C1: Camera
  • C2: Injection
  • C3: Diffusion Vessel
slide60

Verification Plan

Verification Tests

  • V1 Basic Function Test: testing the main functions of the payload
  • V2 Leak Test: verifying that the vessels containing the liquid do not leak
  • V3 Battery Life Test: verifying that the battery life of the camera is long enough to take pictures during the entire diffusion process