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History of Educational Technology

History of Educational Technology

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History of Educational Technology

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  1. History of Educational Technology Where Are We Going & Where Have We Been

  2. Educational Technology Objectives: • To identify events and devices of the past that contributed to the technological revolution. • To examine the organizations and their viewpoints that have shaped technology use in the classroom today. • To prepare for the future in educational technology by analyzing current trends and advances.

  3. Educational Technology “Technology is commonly thought of in terms of gadgets, instruments, machines and devices … most (educators) will defer to technology as computers.” (Muffoletto, 1994) TEA

  4. Educational Technology The history of “Educational technology … can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systemized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information.” (Paul Saettler, 1990)

  5. History of “Computers” • Abacus---Approximately 3000 BC • Calculators---1600s • Punched Card Devices---1800s • First Electronic Computers---1940s • Mainframes---1950s • Minicomputers---1960s • Microcomputers---1970s • Microcomputer Systems---1980s • Internet---1990s

  6. Ancient ComputingHistory The Abacus Mechanical aid used for counting and making quick calculations. Still in use around the world. Find out more about the Abacus in Resources.

  7. Early Computing History Blaise Pascal Invented the first mechanical calculator. The Pascalineused cogs and gears to solve math equations.

  8. Mechanical Calculators • First “programmable”machine. • Used punched cards (binary instructions) to automate weaving loom. • Punched cards were a staple of early and modern computer programming. Joseph Jacquard

  9. Electronic Computer Systems First Generation:1943-1956 • Used vacuum tubes in electronic circuits. • Used punch cards to input and externally store data. • Up to 4K of memory. • Programming in machine language and assembly language. • Required a compiler.

  10. First Generation: 1943-1956 Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) World’s first electronic digital computer. Used to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the U.S. Defense Department. Check out the ENIAC exhibit.

  11. Second Generation: 1957-1964 • Used transistors, developed by Bell Labs. • Up to 32K of memory. • Programming in computer languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL. 1956 IBM 350 RAMAC Visit the Computing History Timeline in Resources.

  12. Third Generation: 1965-1971 • Used integrated circuits. • Up to 3 million bytes of memory. • Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing processor speed.

  13. Fourth Generation: 1972-Now Microcomputer Revolution Begins. • 1971, Intel develops 4004, the first microprocessor chip. • Altair sold in 1975, the first personal computer. It is a kit that must be assembled. • Apple Computer is formed in 1976 and sells 50 Apple I. • Advances increase memory size, storage space, and processing speeds.

  14. Fourth Generation: 1972-Now • Personal computers or PCs. • Usually cost about $2,000 or less. • Process over 1 billion operations per second. • “Stand-alone” or connected to other computers as a network system. Microcomputers TEA

  15. 1990’s Connecting the World • Tim Berners-Lee • Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was born.

  16. 1990’s Connecting the World Marc Andreessen • An original developer of Mosaic, the first browser software able to read HTML. • Co-founder of Netscape Communications.

  17. The 21st Century • Technologies of the Future • Advanced robotics commonplace • Smart houses • Wearable computers • Holodeck virtual reality • Truly individualized education Check out Dave Moursund’s view of education in the year 2015, one of the Resources.

  18. The 21st Century • Only recently focused on computers. • Internet current primary trend. • Communication with colleagues. • Lesson plan preparation. • Student resources. • Access research and best practices for teaching. 05:34.0 TEA

  19. Educational Technology Source information: NCES 2000 Summer Issue

  20. Educational Technology Our Definition: “A combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies.” (M. D. Roblyer, 2000)

  21. Educational Technology Has technology changed how and what we teach?

  22. Educational Technology Two trends of today’s society: • Explosive increase in number and type of technology resources available. • Dramatic decrease in total cost of ownership (TCO). TEA

  23. Educational Technology • CPU: Intel 4.77 MHz 8088 • Memory: 64K • Storage: Single-sided, 160K 5” floppy disk drive • Display: 12 inch monochrome • Price: $2880.00 IBM unveils first PC in 1981. Read about IBM Through the Yearsin Resources.

  24. Educational Technology Change in educational philosophy of what constitutes basic skills • No longer just three R’s • “Learning to learn” skills essential • Lifelong learning TEA

  25. Four Different Views • Association for Educational Communications & Technology (AECT) • International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) • International Technology Education Association (ITEA) • International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)

  26. Four Different Views AECT • Audiovisual Media Communications. • Begun in 1923. • Initially centered on radio. • Quickly extended focus to include instructional film strips and educational television. • Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting, two-way audio, and visual communications.

  27. Four Different Views AECT • “Branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily with the design and use of messages which control the learning process.” (Saettler, 1990, p. 9) • Publications: • TechTrends • Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology Visit the AECT web site from Resources.

  28. Four Different Views ISPI • Instructional systems approach based on Behaviorist theories • “Systematic approach to designing, developing, and delivering instruction matched to carefully identified needs.” (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1997)

  29. Four Different Views • Publications: • Performance Improvement Journal • Performance Improvement Quarterly ISPI Explore ISPI resources at the ISPI web site.

  30. Four Different Views ITEA • Industry trainers and vocational teachers. • Schools should prepare students for work force Learning about technology as used in the “real world” is essential.

  31. Four Different Views ITEA • Includes robotics, manufacturing systems, computer-assisted design (CAD). • Publications: • The Technology Teacher • Technology and Children • The Journal of Technology Education Find out more at the ITEA web site.

  32. Four Different Views ISTE • Primary focus encompassed both instructional and support applications of computers. • Begun by trainers and educators who predicted that computers would revolutionize education. • Influenced by technical personnel, such as programmers and systems analysts.

  33. Four Different Views ISTE • National Educational Technology Standards for Students and Teachers (NETS) • Publications: • Learning and Leading with Technology (formerly The Computing Teacher) • Journal of Research on Computing in Education ISTE’s website is one of the Resources.

  34. Modern Ed Tech History • First instructional use of computers was as a flight simulator used to train pilots at MIT in 1950. Mainframe Computer Systems

  35. Modern Ed Tech History Mainframe Computer Systems • First use in public schools taught New York elementary students binary arithmetic in 1959.

  36. Modern Ed Tech History Mainframe Computer Systems • Federal funds supported many large-scale projects in mainframe computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in schools, colleges, and universities through the middle of 1970’s.

  37. Modern Ed Tech History Mainframe Computer Systems • Stanford University – first multimedia learning station, Course writer • Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO) • BYU – Time-shared Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television (TICCIT)

  38. Modern Ed Tech History Mainframe Computer Systems Designed to support personalizedmastery learning • Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) - University of Pittsburgh • Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) - American Institutes of Research

  39. Modern Ed Tech History National Education Computing Conference (NECC) • Created by mainframe programming enthusiasts from universities nationwide. • First conference held in1979. • Today is the largest educational technology conference in U.S. with attendance of 10,000+ people.

  40. Modern Ed Tech History • Introduced in late 1970’s. • Adopted by public school systems during 1980’s. • Apple II • Commodore PET • Radio Shack TRS - 80 Microcomputers in Education

  41. Modern Ed Tech History • Early courseware developed for mainframes were provided by: • Large hardware manufacturers • Software systems companies • University development projects • New microcomputer software market driven primarily by educators. Software

  42. Modern Ed Tech History • Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC) • Initially largest provider of educational software. • Funded by National Science Foundation. • MicroSift, EPIE • Provided courseware evaluations. Software

  43. Modern Ed Tech History Software • Authoring systems • Response to educators quest for input into design of educational software. • Allowed educators to develop their own courseware. TEA 15:05.0

  44. TEA Modern Ed Tech History Software • Authoring systems • Required extensive expertise. • Extended time commitment. • Expanded work investment.

  45. Modern Ed Tech History Computer Literacy • Originally defined as programming skills and tools such as word processing. • Today’s world can only agree that the term refers to skills that are constantly changing. 15:45.0

  46. Modern Ed Tech History Seymour Papert • Educational theorist mentored by Jean Piaget. • Developed programming language for young children based on constructivist theory of education. • Raised national consciousness about potential of technology to change the educational system. 16:25.0

  47. Modern Ed Tech History The Internet and the WWW Biggest challenge for the public educational system has been how to prepare schools physically and train teachers effectively for its use in the classroom. 16:50.0 TEA

  48. What We’ve Learned • Computer literacy or knowledge of computer applications is a moving target. • Teaching students technical skills for today is valuable. • More important are “learning to learn” tools for tomorrow and years to come. 17:20.0

  49. What We’ve Learned • Computer-based materials are just one component of resources available to educational system. • Integration of technology as a tool to advance learning in the content areas adds to the effectiveness of other resources and teacher created activities. 18:00.0

  50. What We’ve Learned Development of technology materials and integration strategies is time intensive and should not be a classroom teacher’s primary responsibility – You’ve got enough to do! 18:20.0 TEA