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Diversity of Modern Life. Kingdom Monera (“Monerans”). Smallest and simplest lifeforms Unicellular (one-celled) no nucleus Bacteria and cyanobacteria. Bacteria . Three basic shapes: round (cocci) rod (bacilli) spiral (spirilli) . Questions.

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kingdom monera monerans
Kingdom Monera (“Monerans”)
  • Smallest and simplest lifeforms
  • Unicellular (one-celled)
  • no nucleus
  • Bacteria and cyanobacteria
bacteria
Bacteria
  • Three basic shapes:
  • round (cocci)
  • rod (bacilli)
  • spiral (spirilli)
questions
Questions
  • What are two characteristics of the organisms in Kingdom Monera?
  • What is meant by unicellular?
  • What are the three shapes of bacteria?
kingdom protista protists
Kingdom Protista(“Protists”)
  • Single-celled or multicellular
  • more complex than organisms in Kingdom Monera
  • nucleus
  • protozoans (animal-like)
  • algae (plant-like)
protozoans
Protozoans
  • Kingdom Protista
  • no cell wall or chlorophyll
  • internal digestion
  • no locomotion (some)
algae
Algae
  • Cell walls
  • Chlorophyll
  • Photosynthetic
  • Placed in groups according to color and structure
questions8
Questions
  • What are some characteristics of Protists?
  • What are the two types of Protists?
  • How are the two types of Protists different?
kingdom fungi
Kingdom Fungi
  • Multicellular; complex
  • cell walls, no chlorophyll
  • Threadlike fungi (bread mold)
  • club fungi (mushrooms)
  • sac fungi (yeast and mildew)
questions10
Questions
  • What are some characteristics of Fungi?
  • What are the three groups of fungi?
kingdom plantae
Kingdom Plantae
  • Multicellular, cell walls, and chlorophyll
  • Largest and longest-living things on Earth
  • Vascular or Nonvascular
nonvascular plants
Nonvascular Plants
  • CANNOT conduct water
  • Example: Moss
  • Moist environment
vascular plants
Vascular Plants
  • CAN conduct water
  • Capable of living in drier areas
  • Club mosses, Ferns, Horsetails, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms
gymnosperms
Gymnosperms
  • Seed plant
  • name means “naked seed”
  • Most are conifers
angiosperms flowering plants
Angiosperms -Flowering Plants
  • Seed plant
  • name means “covered seed”
  • Seeds are produced inside ovaries
  • A ripened ovary is a fruit
  • largest/most diverse plants
questions16
Questions
  • What is the major difference between a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?
  • What are three plant characteristics?
  • How are vascular and non vascular plants different?
sponges invertebrate
Sponges (invertebrate)
  • Simplest of the animal groups
  • lives in salt water attached to the bottom
  • Hollow central cavity
  • Two layers of body cells with tiny pores
coelenterates invertebrate
Coelenterates (invertebrate)
  • Jellyfish, hydras, and corals
  • two cell layers
  • Live in water
  • hollow body with a single opening
questions19
Questions
  • What are three similarities between coelenterates and sponges?
flatworms invertebrate
Flatworms (invertebrate)
  • Flattened body; mostly parasitic
  • one body opening
  • two eyespots (light detection)
  • Turbellarians (free-living)
  • Planarians (freshwater Turbellarians)
roundworms invertebrate
Roundworms (invertebrate)
  • Rounded shaped
  • two body openings (eating and waste expulsion)
  • mostly free-living
  • Ex: Nematodes and hookworms
segmented worms invertebrate
Segmented Worms (invertebrate)
  • Rounded, segmented bodies
  • two body openings
  • has five hearts and a brain
  • Ex: leeches and marine tube worms
questions23
Questions
  • In what major way are the three types of worms different?
  • How are the segmented worms MOST similar to the roundworms?
mollusks invertebrate
Mollusks (invertebrate)
  • Soft-bodies, no shell: (octopus/squid)
  • well-developed organs
  • some with shells: (clams/oysters)
arthropods invertebrate
Arthropods (invertebrate)
  • Largest group of animals
  • multiple body segments
  • jointed appendages (legs/arms)
  • exoskeleton (hard outer covering)
arthropods continued
Arthropods (continued)
  • Well-developed organs
  • insects, lobsters, crabs, and spiders
echinoderms invertebrate
Echinoderms (invertebrate)
  • Spiny skinned animals
  • star fish (sea stars), sand dollars, sea cucumbers
  • flexible arms; tube feet
  • known for regeneration (ability to grow new body parts)
questions28
Questions
  • What is the major similarity between mollusks, echinoderms, and arthropods?
  • Which group of organisms are known for regeneration?
  • What is regeneration?
questions29
Questions
  • What is the largest group of animals?
  • Describe an invertebrate.
  • An octopus and a clam belong to what group of invertebrates?
  • How is an endoskelton different from an exoskeleton?
vertebrates
Vertebrates
  • Have backbones
  • body with a head and most have appendages
  • endoskeleton (internal skeleton for support/protection)
vertebrates continued
Vertebrates (continued)
  • Endotherm (warm- blooded); these organisms can control their body temperature from within despite changes in the environment
vertebrates continued32
Vertebrates (continued)
  • Ectotherm (cold-blooded); body temperature changes with the environment
questions33
Questions
  • What is the difference between an ectotherm and an endotherm?
  • How is a vertebrate different from an invertebrate?
jawless fishes
Jawless fishes
  • Ex: Sea lamprey
  • mouth is used for sucking fluids; no appendages (fins)
  • flexible skeleton made of cartilage
  • ectotherms
cartilaginous fishes
Cartilaginous Fishes
  • Two pairs of fins; gills
  • ectotherms
  • strong teeth (sharks)
  • SKELETON MADE OF CARTILAGE
  • stingrays, skates, sharks
bony fishes
Bony fishes
  • Flounder, eels, trout, and others
  • SKELETON MADE OF BONE
  • gills
  • streamlined bodies (narrow shape)
  • most numerous group of fish
questions37
Questions
  • How are the cartilaginous fishes mainly different from the bony fishes?
  • What do the other fishes have that the jawless fishes do not have?
amphibians
Amphibians
  • Frogs, toads, salamanders
  • part of their life is spent on land and part of life is spent in the water; (ectotherms)
  • smooth, moist skin
  • gills when they are young and have lungs as adults
reptiles
Reptiles
  • Adapted to live on land (terrestrial)
  • breathe with lungs
  • body covered with plates or scales
  • ectotherms
reptiles40
Reptiles
  • Dinosaurs
  • Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and alligators
  • lay eggs in a leathery shell
birds
Birds
  • Bodies adapted for flight (light, bones, feathers, and wings)
  • Scaly legs and feet
  • lay eggs in a hard shell
  • endotherms
mammals
Mammals
  • Advanced nervous system; highly developed brain
  • Endotherms
  • Hairy bodies
  • can occupy several habitats
  • give birth to live young; produce milk mammary glands
questions43
Questions
  • Which animals spend part of their life on and part of it in the water?
  • What type of animals have scales or or hard plates?
questions44
Questions
  • Which two groups of animals are warm-blooded?
  • What is the difference between the eggs of reptiles and birds?