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Global Sources of Mercury Pollution: what they are and what we can do. Marianne Bailey Office of International Affairs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency May 2007. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, using J. Pacyna 2000 data. 1990. Africa . Asia. 9%. 38%. Africa . Asia.

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global sources of mercury pollution what they are and what we can do

Global Sources of Mercury Pollution: what they are andwhat we can do

Marianne Bailey

Office of International Affairs

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

May 2007

anthropogenic air emissions of mercury distribution by region in 1990 and 2000

1990

Africa

Asia

9%

38%

Africa

Asia

South America

18%

52%

3%

South America

North America

4%

Australia

14%

3%

North America

9%

Australia

Europe

Europe

6%

33%

11%

Anthropogenic Air Emissions of Mercury: Distribution by Region in 1990 and 2000

2000

Total: 1,881 metric tons/yr

Total: 2,269 metric tons/yr

Asia and Africa account for about 70% of global emissions and show steady, significant increases due to industrialization.

Based on Pacyna, J., Munthe J., Presentation at Workshop on Mercury: Brussels, March 29-30, 2004

anthropogenic air emissions of mercury distribution by industrial sector in 1995
Anthropogenic Air Emissions of Mercury: Distribution by Industrial Sector in 1995

Non-ferrous

metal production

170 (7%)

  • Coal and fuel combustion is the largest source category
  • Estimates are rough; most countries do not have Hg inventories
  • We need to further develop reliable emissions inventories

Pig iron and

steel production

30 (1%)

Cement

production

130 (5%)

Waste

disposal

110 (5%)

Coal/Fuel

combustion

1470 (62%)

Artisanal

gold mining

300 (13%)

Chlor-alkali

172 (7%)

Total: 2,382 metric tons

Source: UNEP Global Mercury Assessment, UNEP, Geneva, December 2002

global emissions impact imported and domestic fish
Global Emissions Impact Imported and Domestic Fish

Percent of total imports

North America import flows

Notes: Average import flows for 1998-2000. Source: FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2002

  • Commercial marine fish consumption major dietary source of Hg exposure in the U.S.
  • Global reductions in mercury emissions will lower mercury levels in all wild fish sources
movement and trends cont d
Movement and Trends (cont’d)

Commodity Mercury Shipments Among Global Regions (2004)

Summary of Supply, Trade, and Demand Information on Mercury (November 2006), available at http://www.chem.unep.ch/MERCURY/Trade%20report%20final%20PDF.pdf, p. 13.

unep governing council decisions
UNEP Governing Council Decisions
  • February 2003: established UNEP Global Mercury Program after accepting the findings of the Global Mercury Assessment: mercury is a global problem
  • February 2005: established partnerships as one mechanism to address global mercury reductions
  • February 2007: affirmed that partnerships are important but need to be strengthened
    • UNEP to develop an overarching framework for the partnerships, including goals, business plans, operational guidelines
    • UNEP called upon to develop new partnership areas:

vinyl chloride, non-ferrous metals, and incineration

anthropogenic air emissions of mercury distribution by industrial sector in 199510
Anthropogenic Air Emissions of Mercury: Distribution by Industrial Sector in 1995

Non-ferrous

metal production

170 (7%)

Current Partnerships:

Coal Combustion

Artisanal Gold Mining

Chlor-alkali

Artisanal Gold Mining

Air F&T Research

Pig iron and

steel production

30 (1%)

Cement

production

130 (5%)

Waste

disposal

110 (5%)

Coal/Fuel

combustion

1470 (62%)

  • www.chem.unep.ch/mercury/partnerships

Artisanal

gold mining

300 (13%)

Chlor-alkali

172 (7%)

Total: 2,382 metric tons

Source: UNEP Global Mercury Assessment, UNEP, Geneva, December 2002

global partnership for mercury management in artisanal and small scale gold mining
Global Partnership for Mercury Management in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining
  • Goals:
    • Deploy improved management techniques and improve access to best practice information targeted toward community-based organizations
    • Support and expand existing efforts in this sector, in particular the UNIDO Global Mercury Program
  • About 10-15 million miners in over 50 countries worldwide using mercury amalgamation, directly affecting at least 50 million people. Air emissions at least 300 tons per year, consumption about 1000 tons per year.
global partnership for mercury management in artisanal and small scale gold mining12
Global Partnership for Mercury Management in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining
  • Early consultative meeting at World Bank in Washington, D.C. (June 2005)
  • Initiated demonstration project and field training on retort use in Senegal
  • Initiated project to reduce emissions and exposure at gold refining shops in the Brazilian Amazon
  • Discussions with Mongolian government and NGOs
  • CASM web page development
slide16

Sediments are processed with Hg

Hg-Au amalgam

(50% mercury)

Burned in the Garimpo

Hg-Au amalgam

(5-15 % mercury)

Burned in the Gold Shop

Purified gold

slide18

Mercury Capture

System

Hg-Au amalgam

(5-15 % mercury)

Mercury vapor vented directly to street

Burned in the Gold Shop

Purified gold

prototype description
Prototype Description

Exhaust to stack

Inlet from fume hood

1.2 M

Fan

1.2 M

.7 M

Pebble bed (stone not shown)

~US$1000

MI&T Gold Shop Mercury Collection Equipment

global partnership for mercury reduction in the chlor alkali sector
Global Partnership for Mercury Reduction in the Chlor-Alkali Sector
  • Goals:
    • Facilitate implementation of best practices for mercury stewardship at mercury-cell facilities; provide operational information on mercury-free technology
    • Improve global reporting on mercury consumption and releases in the sector
global partnership for mercury reduction in the chlor alkali sector21
Global Partnership for Mercury Reduction in the Chlor-Alkali Sector
  • Early consultative meeting in Maine (May 2005)
  • Training, Action Plan, and implementation of three best practice demonstrations at one facility in Russia with Arctic Council partners
    • Measurable reduction in releases to date of over a ton in 2006
  • Workshop, facility mentoring, and facility-led Action Plan for reduction projects at facility in Mexico
  • Conducting technical exchange with India for information on conversion and mercury cells.
global partnership for mercury reduction in products
Global Partnership for Mercury Reduction in Products
  • Goals:
    • Reduce global use of and demand for mercury by reducing or eliminating mercury in products where effective substitutes exist.
    • Reduce global mercury releases that may occur during manufacturing and industrial processes and during disposal or recycling of mercury-containing products and wastes.
global partnership for mercury reduction in products23
Global Partnership for Mercury Reduction in Products
  • Early consultative meeting held in Maine (May 2005)
  • Sponsored product/use reduction workshop for the Americas with the CEC (February 2006)
  • Working with China, Argentina, Mexico, India and possibly other countries on hospital sector pilots
  • Assisting Burkina Faso with mercury use assessment
  • Product inventories and emissions inventories
global partnership for mercury reduction in coal combustion
Global Partnership for Mercury Reduction in Coal Combustion
  • Goals:
    • Improve understanding of the contribution of mercury emissions from the power sector
    • Increase understanding of existing multi-pollutant approaches, including cost-effectiveness and sharing of information on newly emerging technology
    • Workshop on mercury controls from coal fired utilities in China (October 2005)
    • Working with India’s power sector to improve particulate controls and evaluate NOx control options
    • Exploring a Russia demonstration project on the effectiveness of sorbents on power plant emissions
    • Building on work of Asia Pacific Partnership (APP)
global partnership for air fate and transport research
Global Partnership for Air Fate and Transport Research

Goals:

  • Accelerate the development of scientific information on global cycling and related information on mercury and increase communication between scientists and policymakers.
  • Facilitate establishment/recognition of regional collaborative research programs, invited to post summary descriptions of their plans and progress on the UNEP website.
new partnership work areas
New Partnership Work Areas
  • VCM – activities fueled through ground work conducted by NRDC with additional industry-to-industry work through our Russia chlor-alkali project
  • Waste incineration, including by cement kilns – activities to initially build on existing EPA work in China on cement kilns
  • Primary metals smelting – Region 5, OAR
what we can do
What We can Do

Global mercury partnerships can achieve measurable reductions in mercury use and emissions in the near-term.

EPA views States as important partners

State Resources Network has potential to be very useful in fielding expertise to get measurable results.

We appreciate the interest and encouragement the States have shown as we work on this issue.

Thank You!