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Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright Chapter 19 Hazardous Chemicals: Pollution and Prevention PPT by Clark E. Adams Four Ways to Address Chemical Pollution Safe disposal Pollution prevention Recycling Treatment Hazardous Chemicals: Pollution and Prevention

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environmental science toward a sustainable future richard t wright

Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable FutureRichard T. Wright

Chapter 19

Hazardous Chemicals: Pollution and PreventionPPT by Clark E. Adams

four ways to address chemical pollution
Four Ways to Address Chemical Pollution
  • Safe disposal
  • Pollution prevention
  • Recycling
  • Treatment
hazardous chemicals pollution and prevention
Hazardous Chemicals: Pollution and Prevention
  • Toxicology and chemical hazards
  • A history of mismanagement
  • Cleaning up the mess
  • Managing current hazardous waste
  • Broader issues
toxicology and chemical hazards
Toxicology and Chemical Hazards
  • Dose response and threshold
  • The nature of chemical hazards: HAZMATs
  • Sources of chemicals entering the environment
  • The threat from toxic chemicals
  • Involvement with food chains
the nature of chemical hazards hazmats
The Nature of Chemical Hazards: HAZMATs
  • Chemicals That Present Hazard or Risk
    • Ignitability: catch fire readily; gasoline
    • Reactivity: unstable and may explode or create toxic fumes when mixed with water; explosives, concentrated sulfuric acid
    • Toxicity: injurious to health; pesticides, chlorine
toxics release inventory
Toxics Release Inventory
  • Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) 1986
    • Industries must report locations and quantities of toxic chemicals stored on site and releases of toxic chemicals.
toxics release inventory9
Toxics Release Inventory
  • For 2001:
    • 1,679 million pounds of toxic chemicals released to the air
    • 221 million pounds of toxic chemicals released to the water
    • 4,258 million pounds of toxic chemicals released at land disposal sites
    • Total environmental release = 6,158 million pounds
the threat from toxic chemicals
The Threat from Toxic Chemicals
  • Many are broken down by natural processes
  • Two types persist in the environment
    • Heavy metals
    • Synthetic organics
heavy metals
Heavy Metals
  • Lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, tin, chromium, zinc, copper
  • Used in metalworking, paint, and pesticides, among other products
heavy metals13
Heavy Metals
  • Soluble in water and readily absorbed by body
  • Interfere with enzyme function
  • Example: mental retardation from lead poisoning
organic compounds
Organic Compounds
  • Chemical basis for plastics, synthetic fibers and rubber, solvents, and pesticides
  • Resistant to biodegradation
  • Major health effects: carcinogenic and mutagenic
organic compounds see table 19 1
Organic Compounds (see Table 19-1)
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons
    • At least one of the hydrogen atoms is replaced with a halogen atom
      • Chlorine (most common)
      • Bromine
      • Fluorine
      • Iodine
involvement with food chains
Involvement with Food Chains
  • Minamata disease
    • Small fishing village in Japan
    • Suffered from mercury poisoning
    • Biomagnification
  • “Mad as a hatter”
    • Hatmakers exposed to mercury suffered from insanity
a history of mismanagement
A History of Mismanagement
  • Methods of land disposal
  • Scope of the management problem
methods of land disposal
Methods of Land Disposal
  • Deep-well injection
  • Surface impoundments
  • Landfills
secure landfills see fig 19 9
Secure Landfills (see Fig. 19-9)
  • Properly lined
  • Supplied with a system to remove leachate
  • Provided with monitoring wells
  • Appropriately capped
toxic chemical waste problems
Toxic Chemical Waste Problems
  • Cleaning up old wastes
  • Managing new wastes
  • Avoiding future wastes
midnight dumping and orphan sites
Midnight Dumping and Orphan Sites
  • Hazardous wastes left on remote or unoccupied properties by unscrupulous haulers.
  • Companies stored wastes on their own properties and went out of business, abandoning the property and wastes.
scope of the mismanagement problem
Scope of the Mismanagement Problem
  • The Love Canal story (see Fig. 19-12)
  • Hooker Chemical and Plastics Company
    • 17,000 tons of hazardous wastes dumped in abandoned canal
    • Covered canal with clay cap and sold it to the Niagara Falls school board
    • People reported serious health problems: birth defects and miscarriages
    • $233 million spent on cleanup and lawsuits
problems concerning toxic chemicals
Problems Concerning Toxic Chemicals
  • Cleaning up the messes already created
  • Regulating and handling and disposal of wastes currently being produced
    • Protect public and environmental health
  • Reducing the quantity of hazardous waste produced
cleaning up the mess
Cleaning Up the Mess
  • Ensuring safe drinking water
    • Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974
  • Groundwater remediation
  • Superfund for toxic sites
superfund for toxic sites
Superfund for Toxic Sites
  • Advanced cleanup technology
    • Incineration to burn off contaminants in soil
    • Cleaning soil with detergent
    • Bioremediation
    • Phytoremediation
  • Brownfields
  • Costly and slow
managing current hazardous wastes
Managing Current Hazardous Wastes
  • Clean Air and Water Acts
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 1976
  • Reduction of accidents and accidental exposure
slide31
RCRA
  • All disposal facilities must have permit
  • Pretreatment of toxic wastes
  • “Cradle to grave” tracking of toxic wastes
reduction of accidents and accidental exposure
Reduction of Accidents and Accidental Exposure
  • Leaking underground storage tanks (LUST)
  • Underground storage tank (UST) legislation
  • Department of Transportation Regulations (DOT Regs)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
reduction of accidents and accidental exposure33
Reduction of Accidents and Accidental Exposure
  • Emergency Planning and Community Right- to-know Act (EPCRA); also known as Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
  • Toxic Substances Control Act
broader issues
Broader Issues
  • Environmental justice and hazardous wastes
    • Emelle, Alabama
    • Choctaw reservation in Philadelphia, Mississippi
    • 870,000 U.S. federally subsidized housing units
broader issues35
Broader Issues
  • Pollution prevention for a sustainable society
    • Better product or materials management
    • Substitution of products for hazardous ones
    • Cleaning up and recycling solvents and lubricants
    • Safe disposal