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Esophag e al diseases

Esophag e al diseases

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Esophag e al diseases

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  1. Esophageal diseases • Carcinomaof Esophagus • Achalasia of the esophagus • EsophagealVarices

  2. EsophagealCarcinoma -Causes Causes are unknown. Predisposing factors are- • smoking • Alcoholism • Chewing betel nuts or tobacoo • Achalasia of esophagus • Post-cricoid web • Postcaustic strictrue • Tylosis(familial hyperkeratosis of the palm andsole,dysphasia) • Coeliac disease

  3. Carcinomaof Esophagus- Presentations • Dysphagia-initially solid, later both solid and liquid. It is progressive, painless. • Retrosternal discomfort or chest pain at the site of obstruction (patient can localise the site) • Anorexia, regurgitation, weight loss. • Features of metastasis and tracheooesphageal fiscula

  4. Carcinomaof Esophagus- Sites • Upper part—15% • Middle part—45% • Lower part—40%

  5. Carcinomaof Esophagus- Pathological Types • Mainly two types- • Squamous cell carcinoma (upper and middle part). • Adenocarcinoma (lower third, from Barret’s esophagus or cardia of stomach). • Rarely, small cell carcinoma.

  6. Carcinomaof Esophagus- Diagnosis • Hard barium flow • Esophageal strictures • Filling defects • Niche sign • Dilatation

  7. a. Double contrast barium study, demonstrates a flat filling defect (arrows) on the dorsolateral border of the middle segment of the oesophagus with smooth surface. • b. advanced tumor of the distal third of the oesophagus. The lesion has an ulcerative polypoid aspect with marked irregularity of the mucosa and causes narrowing of the organ over a distance of about 12 cm. • c. There is a marked stenosis and mucosal irregularity seen in this carcinoma of the cervical oesophagus invading cranially the upper oesohpageal sphincter.

  8. Carcinomaof Esophagus- Confirm the diagnosis • Endscopy • Biopsy

  9. Carcinomaof Esophagus- Investigations • X-ray chest • ultrasonography • CT or MRI of chest • abnomen endoscopic ultrasonography

  10. Carcinomaof Esophagus- Differential diagnosis • Leiomyoma. • Lymphoma. • Commonest tumor in the esophagus is gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST). • Others: Esophageal VaricesEsophagitis, InfectiousEsophagus, Foreign BodyHiatal HerniaSchatzki Ring

  11. Carcinomaof Esophagus- Management • Upper and middle part –high voltage radiotherapy • Lower part-surgery (oesophago-gastrectomy) • Chemotherapy-using 5-Fluorouracil and cisplatin may be tried • Palliative therapy-endoscopic laser therapy,stent,endoscopic gastrostomy and tube feeding • Palliative radiotherapy

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  18. Im 7 perforate to mediastinum

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  24. Achalasia of the esophagus • A motility disorder charaterised by failure to dilate the lower esophagus sphincter due to absence or reduction of the ganglion cells of Auerbach’s plexus. • There may be degenerative change of vagus nerve nuclei in the brain system.

  25. Achalasia of the esophagus-Presentations • Commonly in middle age • Dysphagia-may be intermittent initially, worse for solid, both solid and liquid. • Regurgitation of food. • Chest discomfort or pain (due to spasm). Sometimes, severe chest pain called vigorous achalasia. • Repeated respiratory infection or aspiration pneumonia. • Loss of weight.

  26. Achalasia of the esophagus-Imaging • Stricture with smooth tapering at the lower end of esophagus • Dilatation of the esophagus in the middle and upper part with loss of peristalsis

  27. Dilatation • Stricture smooth tapering Like the root of the carrot Like the bill of a bird

  28. Differential diagnosis • Carcinoma of the esophagus (usually there is irregular narrowing) • Benign stricture of the esophagus (due to reflux esophagitis)

  29. EsophagealVarices • Irregular worm-like filling defects

  30. EsophagealVarices • Middle and lower part • Stripped or nodosity • Dilatation • Irregular wall

  31. 食管静脉曲张 • Involving whole of the esophagus • Stripped or nodosity • Dilatation • Irregular wall