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Diseases. Chapter 9. Objectives. Differentiate between communicable and non-communicable diseases Identify the symptoms of various diseases List 5 strategies which should be utilized by members of their age group to avoid contraction of these diseases Know the risk factors for cancer

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Chapter 9

  • Differentiate between communicable and non-communicable diseases
  • Identify the symptoms of various diseases
  • List 5 strategies which should be utilized by members of their age group to avoid contraction of these diseases
  • Know the risk factors for cancer
  • Identify the seven warning signs of cancer
  • Be able to list the steps for the BSE and TSE
objectives cont
Objectives cont…
  • List important aspects of periodic self/doctor examinations
  • Differentiate between Type I and Type diabetes
  • List three risk factors for type II diabetes
communicable diseases
Communicable Diseases
  • Transmitted from person to person
  • Transmission can occur by:
    • Direct transmission
      • Coughing or sneezing
    • Indirect transmission
      • Contaminated water or infected insects
  • Tuberculosis
  • Mononucleosis
  • Hepatitis
  • Meningitis
  • Common Cold
  • Influenza
  • Why have rates risen in the past decade???
  • Affects the lungs
  • Caused by the bacillus microorganism – Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Transmitted by airborne droplets when someone with active TB coughs, talks, or sneezes
tuberculosis cont
Tuberculosis cont…
  • Latent TB
    • Will have a positive skin test
    • Not ill
    • Cannot infect others
    • May develop TB later in life
tuberculosis cont1
Tuberculosis cont…
  • Active TB
    • Infants, adolescents, & young adults are at risk
    • Symptoms: fatigue, weight loss, lethargy, decreased appetite, low grade fever, and night sweats
    • A cough generally develops slowly
    • Infections involves the lungs, but can spread to other parts of the body
    • One half of untreated individuals will die
    • With treatment, 5 – 10% will die
tuberculosis cont2
Tuberculosis cont…
  • Diagnosis
    • Chest x-ray
    • Culture and microscopic examination
  • Treatment
    • Active TB: combination of medication
    • Treatment failure due to the development of drug-resistant strains, caused by the irregularity in taking medications
  • Transmitted by saliva exchange
  • Majority of cases occur in 15 – 30 yr olds
  • Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, which attacks the lymphocytes
  • Symptoms
    • Initially, mild symptoms of headache & fatigue
    • Followed by, lymph node enlargement and sore throat
mononucleosis cont
Mononucleosis cont…
  • Medical concerns
    • Enlargement of the spleen
    • Rare but possible complications, such as hepatitis, meningitis, encephalitis, and coma
  • Diagnosis
    • Blood test that detects the Epstein-Barr virus
  • Treatment
    • Bed rest, adequate hydration, non-aspirin analgesics
  • “Inflammation of the liver”
  • Causes of Hepatitis
    • Alcohol or drug induced inflammation
    • Virus – most common
  • 6 different viruses (A, B, C, D, E, & G)
  • Viral hepatitis is a major public health concern
    • 5,000,000 people are infected with Hepatitis B or C
hepatitis cont
Hepatitis cont…
  • Hepatitis can cause:
    • Rapid liver failure and death
    • Cirrhosis and/or liver cancer – a slower process
  • Hepatitis A & B - more likely to cause symptoms
  • Hepatitis B & C - more likely to contribute to long-term health problems
hepatitis a
Hepatitis A
  • Poses the least threat
  • Transmission:
    • contact with food or water which has been contaminated with infected human waste


    • direct person-to-person transmission
  • May be no symptoms at all, but commonly there are “flu-like” symptoms
  • The course of the illness varies from mild symptoms lasting 1-2 weeks to severe symptoms lasting several months
hepatitis a cont
Hepatitis A cont…
  • Individuals at risk:
    • Household or sexual contacts of infected individuals
    • Children in day care settings and their adult caretaker
    • Patients and caretakers in institutionalized settings
    • Recent travelers to developing countries
hepatitis a cont1
Hepatitis A cont…
  • Treatment:
    • Analgesics for pain
    • IV fluids in the presence of excessive vomiting to prevent dehydration
  • Prevention:
    • Careful hand washing
    • Proper sewage disposal
    • Effective water treatment – developed countries
  • Vaccine is available
    • Recommended if traveling to a country with poor sanitation
hepatitis c
Hepatitis C
  • The most serious viral hepatitis to date
  • Transmission is similar to Hepatitis B
  • Risk factors:
    • Blood transfusion prior to 1992
    • IV drug abuse
  • Most who contract the virus have no symptoms
  • Some will have “flu-like” symptoms
hepatitis c cont
Hepatitis C cont…
  • 85% of those infected will develop a chronic infection
  • If left untreated, an individual is at higher risk for cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure
  • Treatment:
    • Interferon
    • Rebetron
  • No vaccine available
  • Spread by direct contact through respiratory and throat secretions (e.g., coughing, sneezing, kissing, and immediate sharing of unwashed eating utensils)
  • There should be special concern if someone in your household or dorm, daycare, or intimate partner has contracted meningitis
meningitis cont
Meningitis cont…
  • Infection of the fluid of a person’s spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain
  • Viral Meningitis
    • Most common
    • Less severe
    • Treatment: bed rest, fluids, medicine to relieve fever and headaches
bacterial meningitis
  • Can cause blindness, deafness, permanent brain damage, learning disability, or even death
  • Can be treated successfully with antibiotics if caught early
  • Classic symptoms: high fever, severe headache, a stiff neck, and a skin rash that looks like small, purplish red spots
  • Other symptoms: nausea, vomiting, discomfort looking into bright lights, confusion, and sleepiness
  • Symptoms can take anywhere from 2-10 days after close exposure to someone with meningitis
common cold
Common Cold
  • Caused by several different viruses
  • Transmitted directly or indirectly
  • Symptoms: congestion, sneezing, sore throat, coughing, and a low-grade fever
  • Medication can ease symptoms
influenza flu
Influenza (Flu)
  • Viral infection of the nose, throat, bronchial tubes, and lungs
  • Transmission similar to the common cold
  • Symptoms: high fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint ache, coughing and fatigue
reducing the risk of contracting the cold and or flu
Reducing the Risk of Contracting the Cold and/or Flu
  • Wash hands often
  • Do not touch infected areas
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Adequate rest
  • Avoid using handkerchiefs
  • Vitamin C
  • Flu shot
non communicable diseases
Non-Communicable Diseases
  • Not transmitted from person to person
  • Develops from many sources:
    • Genetic predisposition
    • Lifestyle factors
      • Sun exposure
      • Smoking
      • Physical inactivity
      • Unhealthy eating habits
  • Cancer
  • Asthma
  • Diabetes
  • Characterized by the growth of abnormal cells
  • Tumors are benign or malignant
  • Classified by cell type and organ of origination
  • 4 classifications:
    • Carcinoma
    • Sarcomas
    • Leukemias
    • Lymphomas
risk factors
Risk Factors
  • Family history: 10% of all cancers
  • Race and culture
  • Carcinogens: 80-90% of all cancers
    • Environmental and occupational hazards
    • Sun exposure
    • Cigarette smoking
    • Viruses
    • Alcohol consumption
    • Poor dietary habits
7 warning signs of cancer
7 Warning Signs of Cancer

1.Change in bowel or bladder habits

2. A sore not healing

3. Unusual bleeding or discharge

4. Thickening lumps

5. Indigestion or difficulty swallowing

6. Obvious change in wart or mole

7. Nagging cough or hoarseness

cancer cont
Cancer cont…
  • Treatment:
    • Surgery
    • Radiation
    • Chemotherapy
    • Immunotherapy
skin cancer
Skin Cancer
  • Most common form of cancer
  • 90% occur on parts of the body not usually covered by clothes (face, hands, forearms, & ears)
types of skin cancer
Types of Skin Cancer
  • The two most common:
    • Basal cell carcinoma
    • Squamous cell carcinoma
    • The fatality rate is less than one percent
  • Less prevalent:
    • Malignant melanoma
    • Incidence is rising 4-5% each year
risk factors1
Risk factors
  • blond or red hair
  • freckling on upper back
  • rough red bumps on skin
  • family history of melanoma
  • 3 or more blistering sunburns as a teenager
  • 3 or more years at an outdoor job as a teenager
  • living in the southern United States
skin cancer cont
Skin cancer cont…
  • risk increases 3-4 times w/ 1 or 2 characteristics
  • risk increases 20-25 times w/ 3+ characteristics
  • Avoid sun when your shadow is shorter than you
  • Cover up when in the sun
  • Use sunscreen with SPF 15 or greater
  • Beware of cloudy days, water, and snow
  • Avoid tanning beds
early detection
Early Detection
  • Skin Self-Exam (SSE)
    • Performed each month
    • Start with the head and work downward
    • Look for a change in:
      • Size
      • Shape
      • Color
      • Elevation texture
      • Sensation
lung cancer
Lung Cancer
  • #1 cause of cancer deaths in U.S.
  • 85% of all lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking
  • Other carcinogens: asbestos, secondhand smoke, radiation and radon exposure
  • Is there early detection for lung cancer???
  • Symptoms:
    • chest pain, shortness of breath
    • recurring bronchitis or pneumonia
    • weight loss or loss of appetite
    • nagging cough
    • anemia
breast cancer
Breast Cancer
  • Most common form among women (besides skin cancer)
  • Risk factors:
    • Age 40 and older
    • family history
    • early onset of menstruation
    • having no children or at a late age
    • late menopause
    • obesity
breast cancer cont
Breast Cancer cont…
  • What is the best way to reduce mortality rates among breast cancer patients???
  • Women age 20 + should perform monthly BSE’s
  • Routine mammograms by age 40
  • Breast Self Exams:
    • Look for masses within the tissue or changes in appearance
    • Conduct self exam at the same time each month
      • One week after the beginning of the menstrual period
breast self exams cont
Breast Self Exams cont…
  • Procedures:
    • Mirror
    • Bath or Shower
    • Lying Down
cervical cancer
Cervical Cancer
  • No symptoms in the early stages
  • Symptoms: uterine bleeding, cramps, infections, pain in the abdominal region
  • Risk Factors: 1st vaginal intercourse at an early age, multiple sex partners, infections with certain types of HPV’s, & cigarette smoking
  • Early Detection: Pap Smear – can detect cervical cancer early and is easily treated in women who have regular exams
pap smear
Pap Smear
  • A check for pre-cancerous cells or early cancer of the cervix
  • Can help prevent up to 90% of cervical cancer
  • When should you have your first pap smear?
  • How often should you have a pap smear?
testicular cancer
Testicular Cancer
  • Most common cancer among younger males (ages 15 – 34)
  • Risk Factors:
    • Greatest Risk factor: undescended testicle as a child
    • Other risk factors: family history, inguinal hernia, testicular trauma, mumps, elevated testicular temperature, & vasectomy
testicular self exams
Testicular Self Exams
  • Exams should begin at age 15
  • How often should you perform a TSE???
  • When should you perform a TSE???
  • Procedures:
    • Mirror
    • After a Bath or Shower
  • Respiratory disorder which involves difficulty breathing
  • Individuals will notice a wheezing sound
  • In some cases, an individual can remove themselves from an irritant
  • Most attacks require medical intervention
asthma cont
Asthma cont…
  • Risk factors: family history, exposure to certain allergens, certain viral infections, and cigarette smoke
  • Individuals are twice as likely to have asthma, if their mother smoked
  • Most children outgrow the condition
  • Insufficient insulin production by the pancreas


  • The body’s inability to utilize insulin
  • 2 functions of insulin
    • move glucose from blood to cells
    • convert glucose to glycogen
  • Types of diabetes: Type I and Type II
type i diabetes
Type I Diabetes
  • associated with child or adolescent onset
  • pancreas does not produce insulin
  • requires regular injections
  • Symptoms:
    • fatigue, irritability, abnormal hunger or thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss
    • symptoms appear suddenly and dramatically
  • Treatment: monitor blood glucose and adjust the amount of insulin injected
type ii diabetes
Type II Diabetes
  • Associated with adult onset and obesity
  • Insulin produced, but the cells of the body do not use it effectively
  • Symptoms:
    • drowsiness, blurred vision, itching, slow healing of cuts, skin infections, & numbness of fingers and toes
    • symptoms appear gradually
type ii diabetes cont
Type II Diabetes cont…
  • Complications:
    • Diabetic coma, seizures, strokes, heart attacks, gangrene of the lower extremities, & blindness
    • Leading cause of blindness among adults
    • Accounts for half of all amputations
  • Treatment:
    • Healthy diet
    • Regular exercise
    • Maintain healthy body weight and fat levels
    • In some instances, insulin may be required
  • Communicable diseases are transmitted directly and indirectly
  • Tuberculosis affects the lungs
  • Mononucleosis attacks the lymphocytes
  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver
  • Common cold is caused by several different viruses
  • Influenza (Flu) is a viral infection of the nose, throat, bronchial tubes, and lungs
  • Non-communicable diseases develop from genetic predispositions and lifestyle factors
  • The 7 warning signs of cancer aid in the early detection of cancer
summary cont
Summary cont…
  • Skin Self-Exams, Breast Self-Exams, Mammograms, Pap Smears, and Testicular Self-Exams, Digital Rectal Exams, Stool Blood Tests, & Proctosigmoidoscopy help with the early detection of cancer
  • Asthma is a respiratory disorder which involves difficulty breathing
  • Diabetes results from either an insufficient insulin production by the pancreas or the body’s inability to utilize insulin
  • There are 4 different types of Anemia
  • Gastrointestinal disorders include ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome
local contacts and websites
Local Contacts and Websites
  • Texas A&M University Health Center
    • 845-1511
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention
    • www.cdc.gov
  • American Cancer Society
    • www.cancer.org
  • American Diabetes Association
    • www.diabetes.org