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Chapter 3. Biological Processes. Biopsychology/Neuroscience. Brain and the computer Biopsychology – interaction between behavior, brain, and environment Neuroscience – several sciences interested in brain function Anatomy – parts Physiology – how they work. Your brain… right now.

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Biological Processes

biopsychology neuroscience
Biopsychology/Neuroscience
  • Brain and the computer
  • Biopsychology – interaction between behavior, brain, and environment
  • Neuroscience – several sciences interested in brain function
  • Anatomy – parts
  • Physiology – how they work
your brain right now
Your brain… right now
  • What is your brain doing right now?
  • What processes are occurring?
  • Think about basic (e.g. breathing) to complex processes.
phrenology
Phrenology
  • Franz Joseph Gall:
    • Shape of the brain is determined by development of each “organ” of the brain where size = power
    • Skull takes shape from brain
    • By examining skull, can realize person’s character traits and intellectual aptitudes
phrenology1
Phrenology
  • Wanted to correlate behavior with particular regions of the brain – localization of function
  • Gall sought onlyconfirmationsof his hypotheses
    • did not apply the same standard to contradictory evidence
brain structures

Forebrain

Hindbrain

Brain Structures

Limbic

Tectum, substatianigra, inferior & superior colliculus

brain structures1
Brain Structures
  • All the structures have functions
  • Hindbrain: most primitive part – survival – medulla, pons, reticular formation, cerebellum
  • Midbrain: relay stations – input from several places – tectum, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, substnigra
  • Forebrain: higher mental function – cerebral cortex (80% of volume), thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system (amygdala), hippocampus
  • Corpus callosum – bridges 2 hemispheres
cerebral cortex1
Cerebral Cortex
  • Cerebral Cortex: outermost layer (80% of brain)
  • Convolutions/wrinkles and grooves/fissures
    • Longitudinal fissure – separates left and right hemisphere

(nerve fibers = corpus callosum)

    • Central fissure – separates front and back
    • Lateral fissure – separates top and bottom (side)
  • 4 lobes – most regions play multiple roles
    • Frontal lobe: planning/problem solving --- Phineas Gage (frontal lobotomy – calm disorders)
    • Parietal lobe: sensation
    • Temporal lobe: hearing, speech (Wernicke’s area – comprehension)
    • Occipital lobe: vision
sensory motor cortex
Sensory & Motor Cortex
  • Primary motor area
    • Localization maps (homunculus)
    • Contralateral control
  • Primary sensory area
    • Localization maps and contralateral too
    • Vision and hearing in occipital and temporal lobes
neurons
Neurons
  • Receive, transmit, interpret
  • Types of neurons
    • Sensory neuron also called afferent
    • Motor neuron also called efferent
    • Interneuron – from sensory to motor
neurons1
Neurons

Total neurons thousand billion – each neuron connecting to ten thousand

electrical neuronal communication
Electrical neuronal communication
  • Cell is not firing: resting potential (negative)
  • Cell fires: action potential (positive voltage)
  • All-or-none signal
    • Must exceed threshold in axon hillock
  • Refractory period
electrical neuronal communication1
Electrical neuronal communication
  • How do we get different strengths of feelings if all or none AP?
  • Stimulus intensity is in how quickly the cell fires
    • How many APs occur in a time period
    • How many neurons fire
neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
  • Acetylcholine (ACh)
    • Movement, Alzheimer’s
  • Dopamine (DA)
    • Movement, attention, Parkinson’s
  • Norepinephrine (NE)
    • Mood
  • Serotonin (5-HT)
    • Mood and arousal
  • GABA
    • Anxiety, panic
methods of investigation
Methods of Investigation
  • Lesions – 1850 (no pain)
  • Activating the brain
    • Direct stimulation
methods of investigation1
Methods of Investigation
  • Imaging technology - Structure
    • CT – x-rays
    • MRI – rebound of nuclei from
  • Imaging technology - Structure
    • EEG: electroencephalography – electrodes

on scalp

    • PET – active cells take more injected sugar

- blood flow

    • fMRI – blood flow & oxygen use
disorders
Disorders
  • Apraxia
    • Disturbance in initiation of voluntary action
    • Speech apraxia: can’t move jaw
  • Agnosia:
    • Can’t identify objects using affected sensory modality
    • Visual agnosia
    • Prosopagnosia: Can not recognize objects – especially faces
  • Neglect syndrome:
    • One side of visual field is not perceived
  • Aphasia:
    • Problem with production or comprehension
    • Broca’s area, left frontal lobe – speech production http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2IiMEbMnPM
    • Wernicke’s area, left temporal/parietal lobe - comprehension
aphasia
Aphasia
  • Paul Broca
    • Observed brain lesion in

left hemisphere of patient

with aphasia

  • Carl Wernicke
    • Observed man whose

language made no sense

neuropharmacology
Neuropharmacology

Neuropharmacology

  • Other chemicals affect release, uptake, or reuptake
  • Receptor antagonists inhibit uptake

- bind to receptor sites & block neurotransmitter

  • Receptor agonists boost or mimic neurotransmitters
slide23

Agonist substitution: give another drug w/similar makeup

  • EX methadone for heroin; nicotine patches/gum
  • - but can develop tolerance, lose analgesia/sedation
  • - can also become addicted to new drug
slide24

Antagonist drugs: block/counteract effect of drug

EX naltrexone for opiates

  • can reduce craving for drug
  • but must be motivated to take
  • can also cause withdrawal sxs if begun before other drug is discontinued
genetic research
Genetic Research

Consanguinity/Family Study

  • Compare people who share more/fewer genes
genetic research1
Genetic Research

Twin Study

  • Compare MZ twins & DZ twins
  • MZ reared together vs. apart
genetic research2
Genetic Research

Adoption Study

  • Compare adopted children to their biological & adoptive parents