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Carbon Hybridization
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Carbon Hybridization

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  1. Carbon Hybridization SWBAT: Draw sp hybrid bonding orbitals for carbon

  2. The Carbon Problem How Does This Explain Carbon’s four bonding electrons?

  3. Orbitals Electrons take up space The space they take up is referred to as an orbital

  4. Atomic Orbitals Change when Bonding • Just as you can alter your clothing (zip up your jacket and raise its hood) to respond to different situations, an atom can alter the arrangement of its electrons to fit the conditions in which it finds itself • Elements rearrange Valence e- and create special bonding orbitals • They have new shapes and different names • This increases stability of bonded elements

  5. Atomic Orbitals Bonding Orbitals • s, p, d, and f • Atomic orbitals are used to explain the where e- are around the nucleus of an atom • The space taken up by overlapping bond electrons • Used to explain the shape and properties of molecules consisting of atoms sharing electrons

  6. Hybridization and Hybrid Orbitals Hybridization Hybrid Orbitals Describes the process of change from atomic orbitals to bonding orbitals Orbitals that have been changed for bonding

  7. Carbon Hybridization Carbon needs to share 4 Ve- to complete octet The four Ve- in the 2nd energy level are energetically not identical: 2s2 and 2p2 Carbon will mix and rearranged these Ve- to create 4 new orbitals Carbon Hybridization

  8. sp3 Hybridization One e- from the 2s2 is transferred to the third empty 2p orbital: p3 Creating 4 equal orbitals called sp3: 1s, 3p

  9. e- arrange themselves in a tetrahedral arrangement sp3 Hybridization Molecular Shape and Orbital Hybridization

  10. Carbon Hybridization

  11. sp3 Hybridization C2H6

  12. sp2 Hybridization • C2H4

  13. sp Hybridization • C2H2