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Carbon Hybridization. SWBAT: Draw sp hybrid bonding orbitals for carbon. The Carbon Problem. How Does This Explain Carbon’s four bonding electrons?. Orbitals. Electrons take up space The space they take up is referred to as an orbital. Atomic Orbitals Change when Bonding.

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Carbon Hybridization

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carbon hybridization

Carbon Hybridization

SWBAT: Draw sp hybrid bonding orbitals for carbon

the carbon problem
The Carbon Problem

How Does This Explain Carbon’s four bonding electrons?


Electrons take up space

The space they take up is referred to as an orbital

atomic orbitals change when bonding
Atomic Orbitals Change when Bonding
  • Just as you can alter your clothing (zip up your jacket and raise its hood) to respond to different situations, an atom can alter the arrangement of its electrons to fit the conditions in which it finds itself
  • Elements rearrange Valence e- and create special bonding orbitals
    • They have new shapes and different names
    • This increases stability of bonded elements

Atomic Orbitals

Bonding Orbitals

  • s, p, d, and f
  • Atomic orbitals are used to explain the where e- are around the nucleus of an atom
  • The space taken up by overlapping bond electrons
  • Used to explain the shape and properties of molecules consisting of atoms sharing electrons
hybridization and hybrid orbitals
Hybridization and Hybrid Orbitals


Hybrid Orbitals

Describes the process of change from atomic orbitals to bonding orbitals

Orbitals that have been changed for bonding

carbon hybridization1
Carbon Hybridization

Carbon needs to share 4 Ve- to complete octet

The four Ve- in the 2nd energy level are energetically not identical: 2s2 and 2p2

Carbon will mix and rearranged these Ve- to create 4 new orbitals

Carbon Hybridization

sp3 hybridization
sp3 Hybridization

One e- from the 2s2 is transferred to the third empty 2p orbital: p3

Creating 4 equal orbitals called sp3: 1s, 3p


e- arrange themselves in a tetrahedral arrangement

sp3 Hybridization

Molecular Shape and Orbital Hybridization