The British Empire in India“The Jewel in the Crown” In this lesson, students will be able to define the following terms: Imperialism Sepoy Rebellion British East India Company Effects of British Imperialism on India
East India Company • British economic interests began in early 1600’s • British East India Company (privately owned) • Set up trading posts around India • Bombay • Madras • Calcutta
Mughal Dynasty & EIC • Mughal Dynasty (India’s ruling Empire) • Established early control over European traders • By 1707 Mughal empire was collapsing • Small states began breaking away from the empire • In 1757 Robert Clive led East India Company troops establish power in India. Battle of Plassey • East India Company Dominates • Governed Bangladesh, India, & land along the Ganges River • East India Company had an army of Indian soldiers known as the sepoys
Britain’s “Jewel in the Crown” What do you think this statement means? • Major supplier of raw materials for Britain Industrial expansion • India’ s population of 300 million people made profitable market for British goods.
Rule w/ an Iron Fist“Jewel in the Crown” • British forbade India from trading on its own with other countries • Why is this bad for India and Good for Britain? • India was forced to produce raw materials for only Britain and to buy finished products from only Britain • What does this mean? • Indian competition with British finished products was forbidden • What does this mean?
“Jewel in the Crown” • Britain set up a railroad network to take raw materials from inside India to its ports
Raw Materials Taken from India • Tea • Indigo (dye for clothing)
Raw Materials Taken from India • Coffee • Cotton
Raw Materials Taken from India • Jute (fiber for making rope) • Opium (plant that heroin is made from)
Sepoy Mutiny • 1857, a rumor spread throughout the sepoys that the cartridges of their rifles were sealed with both cow and pig fat. • Cows are sacred to Indians • Muslims were forbidden to eat pork • The Sepoys who refused to take the new cartridges were put into jail
Sepoy Mutiny • Sepoys rebelled across India • East India Company was losing control over India • The mutiny was not put down until the British government sent in troops.
Effects of the Sepoy Mutiny • Sepoy Rebellion was unsuccessful not b/c of a lack of anti-imperialism sentiment but because of the division amongst Muslim and Hindu Indians. • The most lasting changes which occurred, was that authority was transferred from the East India Company to the British crown.
Turning Point • 1858 British government took direct control over India (because of the Mutiny) • Raj (time period when India was under Great Britain’s control: 1857-1947)
Raj • India was divided into 11 Provinces and 250 districts • Result: Mutiny increased distrust between British and Indians: it fueled more British racism towards Indians “sometimes a handful of officials would be the only British amongst millions of Indians in a district “