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Input Address. Matches?. yes. no. Parse Address. Score Matches. no. Generate Soundex for Address Name. Best Score >= 90?. Output Rejects. yes. List Candidates: No. Range,Zone. Correct Addresses or Map. Output Address. GIS Lecture 7 Geocoding. Outline. Geocoding

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slide1

Input

Address

Matches?

yes

no

Parse Address

Score Matches

no

Generate Soundex

for Address Name

Best Score

>= 90?

Output

Rejects

yes

List Candidates:

No. Range,Zone

Correct Addresses

or Map

Output

Address

GIS Lecture 7

Geocoding

outline
Outline
  • Geocoding
  • Linear Address Matching
  • Problems and Solutions
  • Street Map
  • Polygon Address Matching
  • Improving the Process
  • Geomasking
  • WEB Sites
geocoding4
Geocoding

Address Geocoding

  • Process of creating geometric representations for locations (such as point features) from descriptions of locations (such as addresses)

Displays tabular data containing addresses as points on a map

Finds locations on a map easily

geocoding examples
Geocoding Examples
  • Local Technology Council maps technology businesses by streets to see technology rich areas in a city
  • Emergency dispatch operators geocode an address to determine who should respond to an emergency call
  • County health director maps personal care and nursing homes and compares them to elderly population by neighborhood
  • Business maps store locations and compares to competitor locations
  • Others?
what do you geocode
What do you geocode?
  • Tabular data with zip codes, addresses or latitude and longitude…
    • Text
    • Databases
what do you geocode7
What do you geocode?
  • …to Geographic maps
    • TIGER Streets
    • ZIP Codes
address matching9
Address Matching
  • Address matching is a process that compares two addresses to determine whether or not they are the same.
  • Looks for certain standards and makes a decision about whether addresses match.
  • Incorrect, incomplete, or ambiguous address information will reduce the matching confidence.
tiger files
TIGER Files
  • Geographic elements used to address match
    • Lines
      • streets, railroads, rivers
    • Areas
      • zip codes, census blocks, tracts, MCD/CCDs, places, counties, etc.
    • Points
      • landmarks such as churchs, schools, and other cultural features represented in TIGER as points
linear address matching streets

0105

0107

Linear Address Matching (Streets)
  • Urban street maps
      • four street address numbers ranging from low to high for each side of a street segment.
  • Left_from Left_to Right_from Right_to Street_name Type
  • 101 199 100 198 OAK ST

Oak St.

198

100

199

101

(80.731, 40.025) (80.729, 40.025)

address matching major steps

StoreID

Address

Class

Address Matching Major Steps

Store.dbf

1437

123 Oak St

A

402

333 Pine Av

A

855

18 Bay Dr

B

address matching major steps15

Store.dbf

StoreID

Address

Class

1437

123 Oak St

A

402

333 Pine Av

A

855

18 Bay Dr

B

Address Matching Major Steps

Attributes of Streets

Parity

Street_

Side

From

Street

Type

To

5950

R

E

2

98

Oak

St

5950

L

O

1

99

Oak

St

R

E

100

198

Oak

St

6011

L

O

101

199

Oak

St

6011

address matching major steps16

Store.dbf

StoreID

Address

Class

1437

123 Oak St

A

402

333 Pine Av

A

855

18 Bay Dr

B

Address Matching Major Steps

Oak St

198

100

5950

6011

101

199

123

Pine Av

Attributes of Streets

Parity

Street_

Side

From

Street

Type

To

5950

R

E

2

98

Oak

St

5950

L

O

1

99

Oak

St

R

E

100

198

Oak

St

6011

L

O

101

199

Oak

St

6011

address components
Address Components
  • Number123Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
address components18
Address Components
  • Number123Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Name 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
address components19
Address Components
  • Number123Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Name 123 OakST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Type 123 OakSTW, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
address components20
Address Components
  • Number123Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Name 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Type 123 OakSTW, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Direction, suffix 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
address components21
Address Components
  • Number123Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Name 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Type 123 OakSTW, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Direction, suffix 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Direction, prefix 123 W Oak ST, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
address components22
Address Components
  • Number123Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Name 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Type 123 OakSTW, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Direction, suffix 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Direction, prefix 123 W Oak ST, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Unit Number 123 Oak ST W,Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
address components23
Address Components
  • Number123Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Name 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Type 123 OakSTW, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Direction, suffix 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Direction, prefix 123 W Oak ST, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Unit Number 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Zone, city 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Zone, zip code 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
address components24
Address Components
  • Number123Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Name 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Street Type 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Direction, suffix 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Direction, prefix 123 W Oak ST, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Unit Number 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Zone, city 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Zone, zip code 123 Oak ST W, Apt. 2, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • Items for Single Number Street Address:
  • Address Unit City Zip Code
  • 123 Oak ST W Apt. 2 Pittsburgh 15213
possible problems
Possible Problems:
  • Variations in Street Names
    • Fifth Avenue, Fifth Ave., 5th AV
    • Saw Mill Run, Route 51
possible problems27
Possible Problems:
  • Variations in Street Names
    • Fifth Avenue, Fifth Ave., 5th AV
    • Saw Mill Run, Route 51
  • Data Entry Errors
    • Fidth Avenue
    • Sawmill Run
possible problems28
Possible Problems:
  • Variations in Street Names
    • Fifth Avenue, Fifth Ave., 5th AV
    • Saw Mill Run, Route 51
  • Data Entry Errors
    • Fidth Avenue
    • Sawmill Run

Place Names

    • CMU, PNC Park, Station Square
possible problems29
Possible Problems:
  • Variations in Street Names
    • Fifth Avenue, Fifth Ave., 5th AV
    • Saw Mill Run, Route 51
  • Data Entry Errors
    • Fidth Avenue
    • Sawmill Run
  • Place Names
    • CMU, PNC Park, Station Square
  • Intersections
    • 5th AV and Craig ST
possible problems30
Possible Problems:
  • Variations in Street Names
    • Fifth Avenue, Fifth Ave., 5th AV
    • Saw Mill Run, Route 51
  • Data Entry Errors
    • Fidth Avenue
    • Sawmill Run
  • Place Names
    • CMU, PNC Park, Station Square
  • Intersections
    • 5th AV and Craig ST

Zones

    • 100 Main ST 15101, 100 Main ST 16202
possible problems31
Possible Problems:
  • Variations in Street Names
    • Fifth Avenue, Fifth Ave., 5th AV
    • Saw Mill Run, Route 51
  • Data Entry Errors
    • Fidth Avenue
    • Sawmill Run
  • Place Names
    • CMU, PNC Park, Station Square
  • Intersections
    • 5th AV and Craig ST

Zones

    • 100 Main ST 15101, 100 Main ST 16202

Post Office Boxes

    • P.O. Box 125
possible problems32
Possible Problems:
  • Variations in Street Names
    • Fifth Avenue, Fifth Ave., 5th AV
    • Saw Mill Run, Route 51
  • Data Entry Errors
    • Fidth Avenue
    • Sawmill Run
  • Place Names
    • CMU, PNC Park, Station Square
  • Intersections
    • 5th AV and Craig ST

Zones

    • 100 Main ST 15101, 100 Main ST 16202

Post Office Boxes

    • P.O. Box 125
    • Missing Street (TIGER) information
solution correct intersections
Solution: Correct Intersections
  • Format:

Forbes AV & Craig ST

Grant ST & 5th AV

Default Delimiters

ArcView: &

ARC/INFO: /

solution use standard directions
E E

EA E

EAS E

EAST E

EX EX

EXT EX

EXTENDED EX

EXTENSION EX

N N

NO N

NORTE N

NORTH N

NE NE

NORTHEAST NE

NW NW

NORTHWEST NW

S S

SO S

SOUTH S

SE SE

SOUTHEAST SE

SW SW

SOUTHWEST SW

W W

WE W

WEST W

Solution: Use Standard Directions
solution use standard street type abbreviations
CR CR

Crescent CR

CRSG CRSG

CSWY CSWY

DR DR

Drive DR

DRV DR

EXP EXWY

Expressway EXWY

EXPWY EXWY

Freeway FRWY

FRWY FRWY

FWY FRWY

Highway HWY

HWY HWY

HY HWY

LA LA

Lane LA

LN LA

Loop Loop

Motorway MTWY

MTWY MTWY

Parkway PKWY

PKWY PKWY

etc.

Solution: Use Standard Street Type Abbreviations
improving address matching
Improving Address Matching
  • Integrate User Data Entry and Address Matching
  • Purchase or Build High Quality Maps (Field Verification)
  • Correct and Maintain Maps (Lab)
  • Assign House Numbers in Rural Areas
solution alias table
Solution:Alias Table
  • DBF Table (Name of Your Choice):
  • Alias Address
  • CMU 5000 Forbes Av
  • Carnegie Mellon 5000 Forbes AV
  • Carnegie Mellon Univ 5000 Forbes AV
  • Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes AV
  • Etc.
tiger files polygon topology
TIGER Files: Polygon Topology
  • Zip Code
  • American Indian Reservation
  • Alaska Nature Village Statistical Area
  • Tribal Designated Statistical Area
  • Tribal Jurisdiction Statistical Area
  • Alaska Nature Regional Corp.
  • FIPS State Code
  • FIPS County Code
  • MCD
  • Place
  • Census Tract/Block Numbering Area
  • Tabulation Block
tiger polygons zipcodes parcels
TIGER:Polygons - Zipcodes/Parcels
  • Polygon features can be identified by their parcel numbers, postal zip, or zip+4 codes
    • Parcel_Number(1046)
    • ZIP(15218)
    • ZIP + 4(15218-1234)
address matching in arcmap
Address Matching in ArcMap

Create a new Address Locator in ArcCatalog

address matching in arcmap51
Address Matching in ArcMap

Decide what Locator style to use

address matching in arcmap52
Address Matching in ArcMap

Modify Address Locator properties

address matching in arcmap53
Address Matching in ArcMap

Add the tabular data in ArcMap

address matching in arcmap54
Address Matching in ArcMap
  • Add the Address Locator in ArcMap
  • Add the streets or zipcode layers
address matching in arcmap55
Address Matching in ArcMap
  • Address match the tabular data to the map
  • Rematch if necessary
geomasking57
Geomasking
  • Why Geomasking?
    • Confidentiality of a patient’s identity
      • In the database: latitude and longitude
      • On a map: specific point
  • Two main purposes of geomasking
    • Release of data for subsequent analysis
      • Spatial patterns (e.g. obesity trends)
    • Maps for public release
geomasking methods
Geomasking Methods
  • Transformations
    • Translation: shift all points a fixed distance and direction
    • Scale: expand or contract all points by a scaling factor
    • Rotation: rotate all points a fixed angle
  • Random pertubation:
    • Random distributions – uniform or normal
  • Aggregation
how to geomask
How to Geomask
  • Outside a GIS
    • Can perform arithmetic on X and Y (latitude and longitude fields)
    • Can set a minimum or maximum distance based on population density (urban vs rural)
  • Inside a GIS
    • Generate a random point within a circular buffer
    • Add a population density layer to decide min/max distances
    • Can avoid placing points “out of bounds”
to learn more
To Learn More
  • http://gis.esri.com/library/userconf/health04/papers/pap3012.pdf
  • http://www.spatialecology.com/htools/rndpnts.php
useful web sites
Useful WEB Sites
  • http://www.usps.gov/
  • http://www.geocode.com/geocode.htm
  • http://www.mapquest.com
  • http://www.maps.google.com
  • http://www.zipinfo.com
  • http://geocoder.us
  • http://www.batchgeocoder.com
summary
Summary
  • Geocoding
  • Linear Address Matching
  • Problems and Solutions
  • Street Map
  • Polygon Address Matching
  • Improving the Process
  • Geomasking
  • WEB Sites