Independence and its Heroes. Independence…remained by far the most important moment for the new nations that emerged; representations of its heroes and martyrs have become talismans or icons signifying those beliefs, and reinterpreted with reverence, or
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Independence…remained by far the most important moment
for the new nations that emerged; representations of its
heroes and martyrs have become talismans or icons
signifying those beliefs, and reinterpreted with reverence, or
with irony, by artists in the twentieth century for whom national
or Latin American identity in cultural and political terms
remains an unresolved and therefore potent issue.
(Dawn Ades p.7)
Jacob Lawrence (US. 1917-2000) General Toussaint L'Overture, 1986, silkscreen on 2-ply rag paper, 28 3/8 x 18 1/2 inches
Haitian bank note
“Father of Mexico”
“It will be said that I have
liberated the new World,
but it will not be said that
I perfected the stability and
happiness of any of the
nations that compass it.”
“We have ploughed the sea”
“The Royal Academy of san Carlos in Mexico City, founded in 1785,
was the first academy of art in America, and the only one established
under colonial rule…. In Brazil, the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes
was founded in Rio de Janeiro…in 1826 with the French painter
J.B. Debret, who trained in [Jacques Louis]David’s studio, as director…. In Peru, the Academy was founded in 1919….” (coinciding with the arrival of modern art)
“The same comparative context that rejected
the cosmopolitanism of the Latin American
artists served simultaneously to locate
France at the very center of the international
art scene.” Majluf
Cordero’s draped nude shocked Mexican visitors at a 1864 exhibition.
Academic history paintings were popular in the New World.
Reading: “Dispossession, Assimilation, and the Image of the Indian in Late Nineteenth Century Mexican Painting,”
by Stacie Widdifield
What was Stacie Widdifield’s thesis in
and the Image of the Indian in Late-
Nineteenth-Century Mexican Painting”?
Subjects are “objects of paternalism typical
of 19th century writing about the contemporary
Xochitl, who discovered pulque, presents it to Tecpancaltzin
Academic Neoclassicism in Mexico
Photograph showing detail
of portrait stele
From Voyage Pittoresque dans le Brésil (Picturesque Voyage to Brazil), with more than 100 illustrations, still one of the most important documents about 19th-century Brazil.
2005 facsimile of Skinner’s 1805
book available through Amazon.com
Catalogue of Pingret’s
A study Velasco did as a student at the Academy San Carlos in Mexico City. It shows the destruction of a church to create city boulevards. Modernization of Mexico is documented in Velasco’s oeuvre with obvious ambiguity.
Modernization of Mexico