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HIGHER PE. REVISION SKILLS AND TECHNIQUE. Fine motor skills - subtle movements -involve small muscles - eg. Piano playing, Table-tennis serve. Gross motor skills -large movements -involve major muscles - can be complicated - eg. Running, kicking, Jumping. What is a motor skill?.

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  2. Finemotor skills - subtle movements -involve small muscles - eg. Piano playing, Table-tennis serve. Grossmotor skills -large movements -involve major muscles - can be complicated - eg. Running, kicking, Jumping What is a motor skill?

  3. What is a technique? What is a Skill? • A movement with a purpose. Eg Badminton serve • The way that a skill is performed. E.g Low / High serve

  4. What is a skilled performance? • Skill is relative to ability • Series of linked movements demonstrating - fluency - control - minimum of effort • Reflecting the performers ability

  5. CYCLE of ANALYSIS ANALYSE Key Concept knowledge helped analyse info. INVESTIGATE Data collection – general / focused. Eg observation schedule / movement analysis. REVIEW / EVALUATE Reflect on benefits. Improvements to achieve. DEVELOP Programme of improvement. Detail Practices. Eg Shadow / Pressure / Conditioned.

  6. Preparation / Action / Recovery • Effective way of analysing Skills & Techniques. • 3 Phases of breaking down skills / movements eg Badminton High Serve.

  7. Information Processing ModelThe diagram below is an example of how the learning loop could be applied to serve reception in badminton.

  8. CLOSED Few variables Same response required OPEN Many choices Unpredictable CLASSIFICATION OF SKILLS fast break penalty kick rugby tackle handspring golf drive football pass

  9. SIMPLE Little decision making. Basic movement patterns. Repetition of set movements. Eg Basketball Free throw / Badminton High Serve. COMPLEX Lots of info to be processed. Speed for feedback. Accuracy involved. Lots of subroutines. Eg High Dive / Marathon running (tactical). simple complex

  10. DISCRETE Clear start and finish points. Eg Tennis serve Golf drive. CONTINUOUS Repetitive in nature, cyclical Eg Cycling Running. discrete serial continuous • SERIAL Identifiable constituent parts. Eg Front Crawl Lay-up.

  11. Data Collection There are different methods of collecting- • Mechanical Analysis • Movement Analysis • Consideration of Quality The most effective method or combinations of data collecting depend on the activity being studied / skills or techniques being examined.

  12. GENERAL DATA COLLECTION This gives us information about the overall performance. • Knowledge of Results (p11) • Tick Sheet on effectiveness of general characteristics – movement / positioning / stroke choice / control(p12) • Observation Schedule (p14) We are now in a position to focus on weakness!

  13. FOCUSED DATA COLLECTION There are different methods of collecting- • Mechanical Analysis • Movement Analysis • Consideration of Quality The most effective method or combinations of data collecting depend on the activity being studied / skills or techniques being examined.

  14. What is Movement Analysis? • Measures effectiveness of Preparation / Action / Recovery in a particular stroke. • Based on criteria from Model Performer. (AHPE / teacher / pro’s) • Based on technique.

  15. OBSERVATION SCHEDULE Prep / Act / Rec Skills are compared with a model performer.Eg OH Clear. Video used in conjunction with the observation schedule. (p16) MODEL PERFORMERS teacher AHPE pupil International player from video footage. Badminton Focus…MOVEMENT ANALYSIS

  16. Cont. • Collecting data in this way will give the necessary information to continue to improve. • Continual review is needed to measure improvement. This must be consistent / frequent / accurate.

  17. STAGES OF LEARNING • There are 3 important stages in learning and developing skills; • Planning stage (Cognitive) • Practice stage (Associative) • Automatic stage (Autonomous) • REMEMBER When DESCRIBING a skill we use PAR (preparation, action, recovery)

  18. Planning Stage (Preparation/Cognitive Stage) • Get a mental picture of the skill or technique. • Understand the basics of what is to be learned. • Shadow the movement. • Break the skill down, if possible. • Slow the skill down, if possible. • (Errors are common and, feedback and encouragement is required.)

  19. Planning Stage (Preparation/Cognitive Stage)

  20. Practice Stage (Associative Stage) • Repeated practice, so that you become more consistent in performing the skill or technique successfully. • Detect and correct errors in your execution of skills/technique. • Practice in a controlled environment, e.g. to work in a reduced court area. • The assistance of an accurate ‘feeder’. • Pressure gradually increased as you improve. • Compare your performance with a ‘model’. • Target/Combination/Co-operative Drills • (Your ability, experience and the type of skill involved will determine the amount of time needed to practice. Gradually the number of mistakes made will reduce.)

  21. Practice Stage (Associative Stage)

  22. Automatic Stage (Autonomous Stage) • The opportunity to play conditioned games. • Pressure/Decision Making Drills. • Put the skill/technique you have learned into a full-game situation. • Greater attention is paid to other aspects of the game: game strategy, opponent. • (Errors are less likely at this stage of learning.)

  23. Automatic Stage (Autonomous Stage)

  24. STAGES OF LEARNING • The stages of learning are a progressive process and each stage merges into the next. As your skill level develops you will gradually progress from the planning stage to the practice stage to the automatic stage. During your training programme you may move back a stage if you have progressed too quickly.

  25. Designing Practices… • Identify current performance strengths and weaknesses. • Base your practices on your current level of ability. Use this as your start point. • This will help you design practices that are realistic and effective for specific aspects of skills and technique.

  26. Designing Practices… • Set realistic targets for improvement over a specified period of time. • Keep your practices closely related to the demands of the whole performance. • By doing this it is easier to transfer your improvements back into the activity. • Avoid endless repetition of the same practice. • Quality practice is better than quantity of practice.

  27. Designing Practices… • Consider the work-to-rest interval when you are training. • Make sure you rest enough and avoid fatigue. • Make sure the practices show progression. • As you improve, you can move on to to slightly more demanding practices.

  28. SOLO/SHADOW PRACTICES • SOLO • Establish patterns and routines (movement and body position) • SHADOW • Progress form solo • Mirror movements / actions of another player • Perform actions without opposition and shuttle • PREPERATION STAGE OF LEARNING

  29. DISTRIBUTED • Short practice • Complex skills / technique • Fatigue leads to • De-motivated • Poor execution of skill • Injury • Short number of practice attempts followed by rest intervals • Mental rehearsal during rest period

  30. OPPOSED / UNOPPOSED • To begin, the practice is done with no opposition. • This allows the learner to learn the movement patterns unopposed. PREPERATION STAGE • Passive opposition is then introduced which gradually becomes more active. PRACTICE STAGE • Later the skill can be attempted in conditioned games. AUTOMATIC STAGE • (Method also used when developing tactics)

  31. CONDITIONED GAMES • Rule imposed on the game to encourage the use of a particular shot. • For example, to encourage net play, the court can be shortened. • Improvement programme • working on weakness • maintenance programme • working on strengths

  32. BLOCKED / RANDOM PRCTICE • BLOCKED • Executing ONE technique repeatedly • Then move onto another • e.g hit 30 overhead clears then 30 drop shots • Focus on one skill • Change (time / fatigue / boredom) • Level of difficulty may / may not change • Repeated movement allows for movement memory • Associative stage of learning

  33. BLOCKED / RANDOM PRCTICE • Random • Mixing a variety of techniques • More game / competition like • More meaningful memories of technique (when to play) • Develops shot selection • Increases interest • If skill not consolidated in earlier stages of learning this practice will not be as effective

  34. DRILLS • Single Feed practice is a drill where the performer focuses on the skill itself or aspects of the skill. • This gives the performer the opportunity to focus on the movement patterns that need improvement without the distraction of the game and/or other skills. • Be ready with several drills that are progressive. For instance, multiple feed practices are more challenging and also ensure repetition.

  35. REPATITION • During practice it is vital that movement patterns are repeated until the body systems (muscle and nerves) have learned to move ‘automatically’ in the newly learned way. • The movement will be grooved into the muscle’s memory. • Used with every other type of practice

  36. PRESSURE • Once a skill has been established in a pressure situation, pressure can be gradually increased to groove the skill whilst considering • time restrictions • fatigue factors. • The chances of the improved skill being used successfully in a game are greatly increased after pressure training

  37. MASSED / DISTRIBUTED • Demands of different activities influence whether practicing different skills / techniques is best practiced on a MASSED or DISTRIBUTED basis; • Skill demand (simple/complex) • Ability levels • Motivation Levels • Practicing under Fatigue

  38. GRADUAL BUILD UP • Learning complex skills • Skill involves risk • Many subroutines learned in stages • Challenge yet achievable • Information load is kept to a minimum at early stages – easier to learn. • Attention to vital aspects is enhanced and fatigue is minimised

  39. WHOLE – PART - WHOLE • Individual parts can be separated • Some experience of activity • Not wasting time or being bored by working on areas of strength within the technique. • EXAMPLE • For example Shadow practice is a type of whole/part/whole learning we use in Badminton. The movement patterns are learned without the distraction of the shuttle or the game. Movement patterns are practised separately e.g. practising the chasse step and lunging movement towards the net, mimicking net play.

  40. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE PRACTICE • In order to ensure that practices are effective and that improvement will take place, performers need to consider the Principles of Effective Practice. • Considering the following principles, performers can plan and carry out an effective training programme that will enable them to achieve their goals

  41. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE PRACTICE • The Principles of Effective Practice can be easily remembered as; V.P.S.M.A.R.T.E.R • Variable • Progressive • Specific • Measurable • Achievable • Realistic • Timed – Phased • Exciting • Recorded

  42. INFLUENTIAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT PERFORMANCE • Once you have considered your stage of learning, methods of practice and principles of effective practice, it is useful to think about your; • Confidence • Motivation • Concentration • feedback • Read Leckie and Leckie Pages 75-78

  43. Confidence • Effectiveness • poor accuracy and consistency as the performer is more negative about their chances of winning and this reduces their success. • High anxiety will lead to ineffective performance. • Players low in confidence give up more easily

  44. Confidence • Technique • Parts of the technique which are weaknesses will be repeated when there is a lack of confidence causing the shot to be inefficient and inaccurate • Adaptiveness • Limited confidence means that you might avoid some shots; this reduces the range of shots available and makes you easier to ‘read’. • Reduced confidence may also affect decision making if performer decides to take ‘easy way out’. • Little confidence may mean a player will try less to win the point and is less likely to take calculated risks to do so.

  45. Concentration • A lack of concentration results in some of the following • Game tactic: not watching where your opponent is or the space to hit the shuttle (effectiveness reduced) • Not watching the flight of the shuttle (preparation of technique affected) • Executing a specific technique incorrectly (efficiency reduced) • Making the wrong decision (adaptiveness reduced)

  46. Motivation • Motivation is your level of desire to succeed. You need to be motivated in order to improve your level of performance. • Motivation is an important factor in learning practical skills.

  47. Motivation • Intrinsic motivation is your own ‘internal’ level of desire to succeed to meet the challenge of the task/goal. Again this is done through goal-setting (process or product goals). It may also be that you were extrinsically motivated to reach a goal set by your teacher. Motivation is also linked to feedback in meeting goals. • Extrinsic Motivationoccurs when your involvement in an activity is for reasons apart from simply participation. For example, earning money through competing is an external motivation.

  48. GOAL SETTING • Use goal-setting to ensure that you can perform at your highest level. Goal-setting involves you (either individually or with your teacher) setting challenging targets which are specific to your performance.

  49. FEEDBACK • Feedback is important and can be used to develop performance in many ways: • Lets you know your strengths and weaknesses (Match Analysis Sheet). • Provides Objective feedback detailing your effectiveness in terms of percentages which also illustrates consistency. • Analyses your effectiveness in a range of skills to show your adaptiveness. • Provides the cause of poor technique (observation checklist). • Helps determine what stage of learning to work at and therefore what methods of practice might be appropriate. • Teacher feedback or internal feedback is immediate therefore action can be taken instantly. • Identifying problems helps you plan a course of action.

  50. FEEDBACK • Remember that feedback and motivation are linked. You are likely to be motivated to do well in an activity if you receive positive feedback about your performance when learning and developing your skills. • For external feedback to be effective, it needs to be precise and accurate and be given as soon as possible after the activity of part of the game.

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