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Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory. Outline Lewis Theory Types of Chemical Bonds Ionic Born-Haber Cycle Lattice Energy Covalent Electronegativity Lewis Structures Bond Energy Bond Length Metallic. Potential Energy versus Distance.

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chapter 9 chemical bonding i lewis theory
Chapter 9Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory
  • Outline
  • Lewis Theory
  • Types of Chemical Bonds
    • Ionic
      • Born-Haber Cycle
      • Lattice Energy
    • Covalent
      • Electronegativity
      • Lewis Structures
      • Bond Energy
      • Bond Length
    • Metallic
what happens when sodium metal and chlorine gas are placed in the same reaction flask
What happens when sodium metal and chlorine gas are placed in the same reaction flask?

Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e

chapter 9 examples formation of ionic compounds
Chapter 9: Examples – Formation of Ionic Compounds

Calculate the enthalpy of formation of sodium chloride from it’s elements. Given:

Na (s) → Na (g) +107.3 kJ/mol

Na (g) → Na+(g) + 1 e- +495.8 kJ/mol

½ Cl2 (g) → Cl (g) +122 kJ/mol

Cl (g) + 1 e- → Cl- (g) -348.6 kJ/mol

Na+ (g) + Cl- (g) → NaCl (s) -787 kJ/mol

chapter 9 examples formation of ionic compounds1
Chapter 9: Examples – Formation of Ionic Compounds

Calculate the energy released in kJ/mol when sodium iodide is formed.

Na (s) + ½ I2 (s) → NaI (s)

The energy of vaporization of elemental sodium is 107 kJ/mol. The ionization energy of sodium is 486 kJ/mol. The sum of the enthalpies of dissociation and vaporization of elemental iodine is 214 kJ/mol and the electron affinity of iodine is -295 kJ/mol. The lattice energy of sodium iodide is -704 kJ/mol.

chapter 9 examples formation of ionic compounds2
Chapter 9: Examples – Formation of Ionic Compounds

Calculate the energy released in kJ/mol when lithium hydride is formed. The heat of vaporization of elemental lithium is 161 kJ/mol, the ionization energy of lithium is 520 kJ/mol. The dissociation energy of hydrogen gas is 436 kJ/mol and the electron affinity of a gaseous hydrogen atom is -73 kJ/mol. The lattice energy of lithium hydride is -917 kJ/mol.

chapter 9 examples formation of ionic compounds3
Chapter 9: Examples – Formation of Ionic Compounds

Determine the energy of formation of magnesium bromide. Given:

Mg (s) → Mg (g) +147.7 kJ/mol

Mg (g) → Mg+(g) + 1 e- +737.7 kJ/mol

Mg+(g) → Mg2+ (g) + 1 e- +1,450.7 kJ/mol Br2 (g) → 2 Br (g) +193 kJ/mol

Br (g) + 1 e- → Br- (g) -325 kJ/mol

Mg2+ (g) + 2 Br- (g) → MgBr2 (s) -2,440 kJ/mol

bond polarity
Bond Polarity

NaCl

HCl

Cl-Cl

bond polarity1

ENCl = 3.0

3.0 − 3.0 = 0

Pure Covalent

ENCl = 3.0

ENH = 2.1

3.0 – 2.1 = 0.9

Polar Covalent

ENCl = 3.0

ENNa = 0.9

3.0 – 0.9 = 2.1

Ionic

Bond Polarity

Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e

chapter 9 examples bond energy
Chapter 9: Examples – Bond Energy

Approximate the ΔHrxn for the production of ammonia by the Haber process:

N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g)  2 NH3 (g)

chapter 9 examples bond energy1
Chapter 9: Examples – Bond Energy

Approximate the ΔHrxn for the combustion of methane:

CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)  CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

chapter 9 examples bond energy2
Chapter 9: Examples – Bond Energy

Approximate the ΔHrxn for the halogenation of acetylene gas:

C2H2 (g) + 2 Cl2 (g)  C2H2Cl4 (g)