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Modern Chemistry Chapter 8 Chemical Equations and Reactions. Sections 1, 2 & 3 Describing Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions Activity Series of the Elements. Chapter Vocabulary. chemical equation precipitate coefficient formula equation reversible reaction. Section 1.

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modern chemistry chapter 8 chemical equations and reactions

Modern ChemistryChapter 8Chemical Equations and Reactions

Sections 1, 2 & 3

Describing Chemical Reactions

Types of Chemical Reactions

Activity Series of the Elements

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

chapter vocabulary
Chapter Vocabulary

chemical equation

precipitate

coefficient

formula equation

reversible reaction

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

section 1

Section 1

Describing Chemical Reactions

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

oh that curious ira remsen
Oh, That Curious Ira Remsen!

1846-1927

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

oh that curious ira remsen5
Oh, That Curious Ira Remsen!

This demonstration has its roots in the writings of Ira Remsen, a 19th century professor of chemistry at Johns Hopkins University. In his memoir, Remsen writes....

"While reading a textbook of chemistry I came upon the statement, nitric acid acts upon copper. I was getting tired of reading such absurd stuff and I was determined to see what this meant. Copper was a more or less familiar to me, for copper cents were then in use.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

oh that curious ira remsen6
Oh, That Curious Ira Remsen!

"I had seen a bottle marked nitric acid on a table in the doctor's office where I was then doing time. I did not know its peculiarities, but the spirit of adventure was upon me. Having nitric acid and copper, I had only to learn what the words acts upon meant . The statement nitric acid acts upon copper would be something more than mere words. All was still. In the interest of knowledge I was even willing to sacrifice one of the few copper cents then in my possession.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

oh that curious ira remsen7
Oh, That Curious Ira Remsen!

"I put one of them on the table, opened the bottle marked nitric acid, poured some of the liquid on the copper and prepared to make an observation. But what was this wonderful thing which I beheld? The cent was already changed and it was no small change either. A green-blue liquid foamed and fumed over the cent and over the table. The air in the neighborhood of the performance became colored dark red. A great colored cloud arose. This was disagreeable and suffocating.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

oh that curious ira remsen8
Oh, That Curious Ira Remsen!

"How should I stop this? I tried to get rid of the objectionable mess by picking it up and throwing it out of the window. I learned another fact. Nitric acid not only acts upon copper, but it acts upon fingers. The pain led to another unpremeditated experiment. I drew my fingers across my trousers and another fact was discovered. Nitric acid acts upon trousers.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

oh that curious ira remsen9
Oh, That Curious Ira Remsen!

" Taking everything into consideration, this was the most impressive experiment and relatively probably the most costly experiment I have ever performed... It was a revelation to me. It resulted in a desire on my part to learn more about that remarkable kind of action. Plainly, the only way to learn more about it was to see its results, to experiment, to work in a laboratory."

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

slide10

Demonstration

Demonstration

Ira Remsen DemoCu (s) + HNO3(aq)  CuNO3 (aq) + H2(g)

Chemical Reactionshttp://www.metacafe.com/watch/650550/nitric_acid_acts_upon_a_copper_penny_experiment/

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

indications of a chemical reaction
Indications of a Chemical Reaction

Proof: one or more substances has changed identity – chemical change

  • Evolution of energy as heat and/or light
  • Production of a gas
  • Formation of a precipitate
  • Color change

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

slide12

Demonstration

Demonstration

Red, White and Blue Reactionhttp://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/vrchemistry/FilmStudio/redwhiteblue/page01.htm

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

ammonium dichromate volcano
Ammonium Dichromate Volcano

SeeAmmonium Dichromate Volcano on Houghton Mifflin Chemistry DVD

p. 261

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

indications of a reaction
Indications of a Reaction

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

characteristics of a chemical reaction
Characteristics of a Chemical Reaction
  • The equation must represent know facts.
  • The equation must contain the correct formulas for the reactants and products.
    • Diatomic elements: I2 Br2 Cl2 F2 O2 N2 H2
    • Molecular elements: S8 P4 (page 263)
  • The law of conservation of mass must be satisfied.
    • Coefficients – a whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

diatomic elements
Diatomic Elements

p. 263

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

word and formula equations
Word and Formula Equations
  • Word equations – reactants & products expressed in words

methane + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water

PRODUCTS

REACTANTS

YIELDS

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

word and formula equations18
Word and Formula Equations
  • Formula equations – reactants & products expressed with formulas – not balanced

methane + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water

CH4 (g) + O2 (g)  CO2(g) + H2O(g)

STATE OF MATTER SYMBOLS

Solid (s)Liquid (l) Gas (g)Aqueous (aq)

 Dissolved in water

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

methane combustion
Methane Combustion

p. 265

Insert Glencoe Chemistry Concepts & Applications Disc 1

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

additional symbols
Additional Symbols

MnO2

CATALYST

ELECTROLYSISSPECIFIC TEMPSPECIFIC PRESSURE

YIELDS

REVERSIBLE

PRECIPITATE

GAS

REACTANTSHEATED

e-

0°C

2 atm

heat

TABLE ON PAGE 226

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

p. 226

electrolysis
p. 270Electrolysis

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

additional symbols22
Additional Symbols

p. 226

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

additional symbols23
Additional Symbols

p. 226

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

chemical equations
p.266Chemical Equations

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

balancing chemical equations
Balancing Chemical Equations
  • If the reaction is described by a paragraph, write the word equation.
  • Write the formula for each reactant and product to get the formula equation.
  • Balance the equation.
  • Insert state of matter symbols and other additional symbols.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

balancing chemical equations26
Balancing Chemical Equations

GOAL OF THE GAME:

To get the same number of atom of each element in the reactant and the product.

To obey the law of conservation of mass.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

balancing chemical equations27
Balancing Chemical Equations

RULES OF THE GAME:

Only coefficients can be added or changed.

Once formulas are written subscripts can not be changed.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

balancing chemical equations28
Balancing Chemical Equations

TIPS FOR PLAY:

Balance the different types of atoms one at a time.

First balance elements that appear only once on each side.

Balance polyatomic ions that appear on both sides as a single unit.

Balance H and O last.

page 271

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

balancing chemical equations29
Balancing Chemical Equations

TIPS FOR PLAY:

Try keeping a tally for each element on each side below the equation.

If it could be balanced by a coefficient of 1½ - use it- then multiply all coefficients in the equation by 2.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

balancing equations
Balancing Equations

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

balancing equation
Balancing Equation

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

sample problem p 272
Sample Problem p.272

The reaction of zinc with aqueous hydrochloric acid produces a solution of zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. Write a balanced equation for the reaction

Insert Holt Chemistry Visualizing Matter Disc 1

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

sample problem p 27233

H

H

Cl

Cl

Cl

Zn

Cl

H

H

Sample Problem p.272

Zn + HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

2

zinc + hydrochloric acid  zinc chloride + hydrogen

Zn

Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

sample problem p 273
Sample Problem p.273

Solid aluminum carbide, reacts with water to produce methane gas, CH4, and solid aluminum hydroxide. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

sample problem p 27335
Sample Problem p.273

Al4C3 + H2O CH4 + Al(OH)3

12

3

4

aluminum carbide + water  methane + aluminum hydroxide

Al =

C =

H =

O =

4

3

2

1

4

3

24

12

Al =

C =

H =

O =

1

1

7

3

4

1

16

12

4

3

24

12

Al4C3(s) + 12H2O (l) 3CH4 (g) + 4Al(OH)3 (s)

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

sample problem p 27336
Sample Problem p.273

Aluminum sulfate and calcium hydroxide are used in water-purification process. When added to water, they dissolve and react to produce two insoluble products, aluminum hydroxide and calcium sulfate. These products settle out, taking suspended solid impurities with them. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

sample problem p 27337
Sample Problem p.273

Al2(SO4 )3 + Ca(OH)2  Al(OH)3 + CaSO4

3

2

3

aluminum sulfate + calcium hydroxide  aluminum hydroxide + calcium sulfate

Al =

SO4 =

Ca =

OH =

2

3

1

2

2

3

3

6

Al =

SO4 =

Ca =

OH =

2

1

1

6

1

1

1

3

2

3

3

6

Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3Ca(OH)2(aq) 2Al(OH)3(s) + 3CaSO4(s)

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

balancing equations38
Balancing Equations

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

practice problems page 272
Practice Problems page 272
  • Write word, formula, and balanced chemical equations for each of the following reactions:
    • Magnesium and hydrochloric acid react to produc magnesium chloride and hydrogen.
    • Aqueous nitric acid reacts with solid magnesium hydroxide to produce aqueous magnesium nitrate and water

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

practice problems page 27240
Practice Problems page 272

2. Solid calcium metal reacts with water to form aqueous calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

practice problems page 27241
Practice Problems page 272
  • Write balanced chemical equations for each of the following reactions:
    • Solid sodium combines with chlorine gas to produce solid sodium chloride.
    • When solid copper reacts with aqueous silver nitrate, the products are aqueous copper (II) nitrate and solid silver
    • In a blast furnace, the reaction between solid iron (III) oxide and carbon monoxide gas produces solid iron and carbon dioxide gas.

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

coefficients in a equzation
Coefficients in a Equzation

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

significance of a equation
Significance of a Equation

4 Fe (s) + 3O2(g)  2Fe2O3(s)

Coefficients = molecules (or formula units for ionic or atoms for elements)

4 ATOMS 3 MOLECULES 2 FORMULA UNITS

4 MOLES 3 MOLES 2 MOLES

223.4g 96.00 g 319.40g

+

=

Convert moles to grams

4mol Fe x 55.85g/1mole = 223.4g

Coefficients = moles

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

interpreting chemical equations
Interpreting Chemical Equations

p.269

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275

section 1 homework
Section 1 Homework

Chapter 8 Section 1 Describing Chemical Reactions p. 261-275