STEREO • Planned Launch November, 2005. • Stereo imaging of Sun; coronal mass ejections from birth to Earth impact. • What determines geo-effectiveness of solar mass ejections? • What is their role in generating solar energetic particles? • Maps the corona and heliosphere in 3-D. • Shows the shock fronts leading the ejections. Will show how shocks create hazardous energetic particles • Research tool and prototype space weather & early warning system for solar energetic particles
STEREO MISSION FACTS Mission Profile • Solar imaging and space environment sampling by two identical spacecraft at gradually increasing angular separations from Earth • STEREO #1 leads Earth by 15° after 2 years • STEREO #2 lags Earth by 60° after 2 years Instruments On Board Each Spaceraft • Chromosphere and inner corona imager • Coronagraph • Radio burst antenna • Heliospheric cloud imager • Solar wind plasma analyzer • Magnetometer • Energetic particle detector Measurement Strategy • Obtain images from two perspectives simultaneously • Maintain a rapid camera cadence to capture fast events • Track coronal mass ejections from the Sun to beyond Earth's orbit • Trace shockwaves by radio emissions • Sample bursts of energetic particles • Sample the magnetic fields and solar plasmas at Earth's orbit • Autonomous solar event recognition
Solar B Planned launch September, 2006 • Addresses fundamental physics: “How and Why the Sun Varies” • Relevant to global climate change • Application: Prediction of solar activity affecting human technology and space flight • Major advance in capability (e.g. factor of 10 higher spatial resolution of solar magnetic fields) • International Partnerships: Japan provides spacecraft & launch; Japan, U.S. and Great Britain provide scientific instrumentation.
SOLAR-B(see http://ilws.gsfc.nasa.gov/ilws_missions.htm) • Agencies: ISAS (Japan), NASA (United States), PPARC (Great Britain) • Websites: http://www.isas.ac.jp/e/enterp/missions/index.html • http://stp.gsfc.nasa.gov/missions/solar-b/solar-b.htm • Goal: Investigate: • Creation and Destruction of the Sun's Magnetic Field • Modulation of the Sun's Luminosity • Generation of UV and X-ray Radiation • Eruption and Expansion of the Sun's Atmosphere • Measurements: • Solar Optical Telescope with angular resolution 0.25" andwavelength range 480-650nm feeding a Magnetograph providing vector magnetic field and Doppler velocity measurements, photospheric intensities (field of view of 164x164 arcsec squared, temporal resolution of 5 min) and a spectrograph providing detailed Stokes line profiles of intensity and polarization. • X-Ray Telescope with wavelength range of 2.0 to 60.0 Å, angular resolution of 1.0 to 2.5 arcsec, field of view giving full or partial disk, providing coronal images at different temperatures. • EUV Imaging Spectrograph with pixel size of 1.5 arcsec x 0.002nm, field of view of 400 arcsec, wavelength range 25-29nm, and temperature range 1 x 10e5 - 2 x 10e7 K, providing Doppler line widths and shifts and monochromatic images. • Orbit: Polar at 600 km, Sun synchronous, inclination 97.9 degrees. • Status: In development, launch planned in September, 2006.
Solar-B • Solar Magnetic Variability: • Emerging magnetic field topology . reveals the workings of the solar . dynamo within Sun’s interior • Solar-B will observe the emerging . magnetic field and, for the first . time, its twist, with high precision • The processes by which solar . magnetism leaves the Sun to produce a solar cycle are unknown. • Solar-B will directly show the magnetic flux removal process and its role in the cycle. • Solar-B will provide the first accurate measurements of magnetic fields and electric . currents causing flares and coronal mass ejections that affect Earth • Solar Brightness Changes: • • Extremely small scale features cause the solar cycle changes in the luminosity • • Solar-B will make the first observations with the spatial & temporal resolutions, . and wavelength coverage to determine the how these features produce long-term solar . luminosity changes
Solar Dynamics Observatory - Next Generation SOHO • Investigating solar dynamical processes and phenomena • Observing development of magnetic and subsurface phenomena related to: - Flare &CME energy storage & triggering - The solar dynamo driving the solar cycle. • High data rate from GEO orbit for studying dynamics (SOHO limited by low data rate from L1) Imaging CME’S Red: Faster Rotation Blue: Slower Rotation Solar Dynamo? Link to solar cycle? Imaging Magnetic Structures (rapid time sequences -- “movies”) Imaging Subsurface Structures Imaging Solar Interior
Solar Probe Science Objectives • Understand the processes by which the corona is heated and the solar wind is accelerated. • Determine the mechanisms for the different types of solar wind flow (fast, slow). • Determine the relationship between the solar magnetic structure, surface features, and the solar wind near the Sun. • Explore the dynamics of interior convection in the polar regions. • Characterize the high-latitude magnetic field. Measurement Strategy • In-situ diagnostic measurements of plasma, magnetic field, and high-energy particles. • Magnetograph and Doppler imaging of the solar poles. • Imaging of the corona in white light and EUV/X-rays. Mission Description • Close encounter with the Sun between 0.5 AU and 3 Rsun. • First close flyby of a star. • First view of Sun's polar regions. Technology Requirements • Thermal shield and control at 4 Rsun. • Integrated systems and instruments. • New deep-space missions advanced technology.
Present Solar-Terrestrial Missions & “First Order” ILWS Missions SOHO 08 SDO TRACE 07 Solar-B ACRIMSAT/SORCE CORONAS-F CoronasPhoton RHESSI 07 Picard SST Ulysses 08 WIND >07 ACE >07 STEREO Genesis L-5 Solar Orbiter SMEI Interhelioprobe Solar Sentinels Geotail Geostorm Solar Heliospheric Magnetospheric ITM Complementary Operations may continue Funded to 2007 SAMPEX InterballPrognoz POLAR 05 RAVENS FAST 06 SWISE IMAGE 07 MMS CLUSTER RBSP DoubleStar MagCon THEMIS TIMED 07 AIM SWARM/ACE+ ITSP CNOFS GEC COSMIC EPOP 07 MESSENGER BepiColumbo AURA,GOES, GPS, NOAA-POES, DMSP, MetOp, NPOESS Solar Max Solar Max ILWS Year 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 August 14, 2003 version August 3, 2004 version 1