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  1. 13 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Moral Development, Values, and Religion John W. Santrock

  2. Domains of Moral Development What Is Moral Development? • Changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong • An intrapersonal dimension: regulates activities • An interpersonal dimension: regulates social interactions and arbitrates conflict

  3. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people (4-7 years) Heteronymousmorality Becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people; in judging an action, one should consider actor’s intentions as well as consequences (10 years and older) Autonomous morality Immanentjustice If a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately Domains of Moral Development Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development

  4. Domains of Moral Development Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Moral reasoning unfolds in universal stages • Moral thoughts constructed as one passes through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood • Tested by story with moral dilemma • Theory of 3 levels, twostagesineach

  5. Domains of Moral Development The Kohlberg Stages • Preconventional reasoning— lowest level • Good or bad based on external rewards and punishment • Stage 1.Heteronomous morality (punishment-obedience orientation)— tied to punishment • Stage 2.Individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange (law-and-order orientation)— tied to equal exchange

  6. Domains of Moral Development The Kohlberg Stages • Conventional reasoning— intermediate level • Individuals abide by certain standards, but are standards of others • Stage 3.Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity (good child orientation) — trust, caring, loyalty to others is basis of judgment • Stage 4.Social systems morality —judgments based on social order, law, justice, and duty

  7. Domains of Moral Development The Kohlberg Stages • Postconventional reasoning— highest level • Individuals recognize alternative moral courses, explore options, and decide own moral code • Stage 5.Social contract or utility and individual rights — evaluates validity of actual laws and social systems for preserving and protecting fundamental human rights and values • Stage 6.Universal ethical principles — develops moral standard based on universal human rights

  8. Moral Development • Kohlberg developed a model of moral development based on responses to moral dilemmas.

  9. Moral Development—Kohlberg’s Levels and Stages PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 1: punishment-obedience orientation Stage 2: instrumental-exchange orientation CONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 3: good child orientation Stage 4: law-and-order orientation POSTCONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 5: social-contract orientation Stage 6: universal ethics orientation

  10. Moral Development • Lawrence Kohlberg contended that moral thinking likewise proceeds through a series of stages • from a preconventional morality of self-interest (gains rewards, avoids punishment) • to a conventional morality that cares for others and upholds laws and rules (gains approval, does duty; obeys because rules exist) • to (in some people) a postconventional morality of agreed-upon rights or basic ethical principles.

  11. Preconventional (birth to adolescence) • Stage 1- punishment and obedience orientation • Self-centered • Rewards, punishment • Will not admit intentionality • Stage 2- instrumental-exchange orientation • Aware of perspective of others • Reciprocal-exchange of favors

  12. Conventional (adolescence to young adulthood)- other focussed • Stage 3- good child orientation • Being nice to gain approval • People judged by intentions of their behavior • Stage 4- law-and-order orientation • Takes into account larger perspective- society • One’s duty to respect law and order

  13. Postconventional (adulthood)- develop own standards of right and wrong/abstract • Stage 5- social-contract orientation • Appreciate underlying purposes of laws • Interests in majority versus individual • OK to steal drug to save a life • Stage 6- universal ethics orientation • “right” is determined by universal ethics • Human dignity, nonviolence, freedom, equality • Regardless of whether agree, will conform

  14. Domains of Moral Development Kohlberg’s Stages • Moral stages appeared later than predicted • 7th stage added: cosmic perspective • Peer interaction critical influence • Kohlberg’s critics • Moral reasons (overemphasized) can be shelter for immoral behavior (underemphasized) • Faulty research: difficult to measure morality • Culturally biased

  15. Domains of Moral Development Families and Moral Development • Family processes unimportant in children’s moral development: use inductive discipline • Gender perspectives • Korlberg’s theory has justice perspective— focus on rights of individual, one stands alone and independently • Gilligan’s care perspective— views people in terms of connectedness with others; girls interpret moral dilemmas in terms of human relationships

  16. Focuses on thoughts about social consensus and convention Conventional rules Created to control behavioral irregularities and maintain social system Arbitrary and subject to individual judgment Concepts of social organization Domains of Moral Development Social Conventional Reasoning

  17. Domains of Moral Development Moral Reasoning • Emphasizes ethical issues • Moral rules not arbitrary; obligatory, widely accepted, and somewhat impersonal • Violations are affronts to ethical standards • Involve concepts of justice • Not created by social consensus and convention

  18. Domains of Moral Development Moral Behavior • Basic Processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation: behavior is situation-specific • Resistance to Temptation and Self-Control • Influenced by cognitive factors • Social Cognitive Theory of Morality • Distinguishes between moral competence (ability to produce moral behaviors) and moral performance (actually performing them)

  19. Domains of Moral Development Moral Feeling • Psychoanalytic Theory • Foundation of moral behavior is avoid guilt feelings • Superego: moral branch of personality (2 parts) • Ego ideal— rewards for acting ideal standards • Conscience— punishes for disapproved acts • Children internalize parents’ standards

  20. Domains of Moral Development Empathy • Reacting to another’s feelings with emotional response similar to other’s feelings • Cognitive component —perspective-taking • Develops from infant’s global empathy • Children’s ability depends on awareness that people have different reactions to situations

  21. Domains of Moral Development Emotion and Moral Development: The Contemporary Perspective • When strongly felt, both positive and negative feelings contribute to moral behavior • Positive feelings: empathy, sympathy, admiration, self-esteem • Negative feelings: anger, outrage, shame, guilt • Some emotions undergo developmental change throughout childhood and beyond; interwoven with cognitive and social aspects of development

  22. Domains of Moral Development Emotion and Moral Development: The Contemporary Perspective • Three key dimensions of moral development • Thoughts • Behavior • Feelings • Recently, a 4th: moral personality • Moral identity: willpower, integrity, moral desire • Moral character: convictions, persistence, focus • Moral exemplars: being honest and dependable

  23. Contexts of Moral Development Parenting • Piaget and Kohlberg discounted parents’ input to children’s moral development • Parents see themselves in primary role • Relational quality • Parental discipline • Love withdrawal • Power assertion • Induction • Peers have primary role

  24. Contexts of Moral Development Parenting • Parents see themselves in primary role • Proactive strategies: two parents • Conversational dialogue • Parenting recommendations • Warm and supportive, not punitive • Use inductive discipline • Provide opportunities for children • Involve children in decisions • Model moral behaviors • Provide info and foster internal morality

  25. Contexts of Moral Development Schools — The Hidden Curriculum • Pervasive moral atmosphere in schools • Character Education • Direct moral education approach teaches students basic moral literacy to prevent immoral behavior, doing harm to themselves or others • Values Clarification • Helps clarify what life is for, what to work for • Students encouraged to define own values and understand others’ values

  26. Contexts of Moral Development Schools — The Hidden Curriculum • Cognitive Moral Education • Students should value things like democracy and justice as moral reasoning develops • Instructor is facilitator, not director • Service Learning • Form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to community • Benefits student volunteers and recipients

  27. Altruism and Reciprocity Altruism: unselfish interest in helping another person, mostly evoked by empathy Some argue altruism does not exist; everyone benefits from performing the action Many prosocial behaviors involve reciprocity; the obligation to return a favor with a favor Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior Prosocial Behavior

  28. Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior Prosocial Behavior • Sharing and fairness • Most sharing in first 3 years of life: non-empathic • At about age 4: combination of empathic awareness and adult encouragement • In elementary years: complicated ideas of fairness • Throughout history: involved principles of equality, merit, and benevolence

  29. Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior Prosocial Behavior • Sharing and fairness • Females engage in more prosocial behavior than males • Older adults engage in more altruistic behavior and volunteering • Volunteering linked to positive outcomes • More satisfied in life, less depressed and anxious, better physical health

  30. Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior Antisocial Behavior • Conduct disorder • Juvenile delinquency: adolescents who commit illegal acts • Consequences of early and late onset • Rates among minority groups and lower-socioeconomic-status youth

  31. Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior Antecedents of Delinquency • Authority conflict • Covert Acts • Overt Aggression • Not exclusively lower-SES phenomenon; characteristics of lower-SES culture can promote delinquency • High-status traits for boys • Affected by family and peer relationships

  32. Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior Youth Violence • At-risk youth • Early involvement with drugs and alcohol • Easy access to weapons, especially handguns • Association with antisocial, deviant peer groups • Pervasive exposure to violence in the media • School violence is national concern • Can violent behavior be predicted and prevented

  33. Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior Reducing Youth Violence • Oregon Social Learning Center recommends • Recommit to raising children safely and effectively • Make prevention a reality • Give more support to schools • Forge effective partnerships among families, schools, social service systems, churches, and other agencies

  34. Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Values • Beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be • Measured by asking what one’s goals are • Self-fulfillment and self-expression can lead to self-destruction, loneliness, and alienation • Self-fulfillment and commitment to others can lead to successful adjustment

  35. Religious thoughts unsystematic and fragmented up to 7-8 years Preoperational intuitive Concrete operational 7-8 to 13-14 Focused on details of pictures and stories Formal operational Abstract religious understanding 14 onward Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Piaget’s Stages of Religious Thought

  36. Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Parenting and Religion • Societies use many methods to ensure people carry on religious traditions • Most adults adopt religious teachings of upbringing • Most religious change or re-awakenings occur in adolescence • Positive relationship or secure attachment with parents make adolescents more likely to adopt religious orientation of parents

  37. Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Adolescence • Religion important to most adolescents • Those viewing religion as meaningful are linked to positive outcomes • Lower rates of delinquency and drug use • Better grades for low-income students • Better ability to cope with problems

  38. Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Religion and Identity Development • Self-reported altruism • Occurs during adolescence and emerging adulthood • Identity integration related to moral values and intrinsic religious orientation • Churchgoing has positive benefits on prosocial/caring behaviors and adolescent sexual activity

  39. Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Religion and Spirituality in Adulthood • Important to adults around the world • 70% of Americans religious • More important to women than men • Americans becoming less committed to particular religious faiths • Individual differences in religion in middle adulthood

  40. Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Religion and Health • Religious sect members resist using medical treatments and pain-relieving medications • Positive link between religious commitment and health • Lifestyle: lower drug use • Social networks: more connected to others • Coping with stress; more comfort and support

  41. Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Religion in Older Adults • Increased spirituality in late middle to late adulthood • Increased more for women than men • Linked to spirituality in early adulthood • Faith is most significant influence in one’s life • Put faith into practice more often • Highest commitment linked to highest self-esteem

  42. Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Religion in Older Adults • Psychological benefits • Derived sense of meaning in life • Higher levels of life-satisfaction • Face impending death, accept losses of age • Find meaningfulness • Social community, generativity

  43. Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Meaning in Life • Need for • Purpose • Values • A sense of efficacy • Self-worth

  44. 13 The End