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Scaling of Dye Solar Cells: from single cells to modules and panels. Stefano Penna , Riccardo Riccitelli, Eleonora Petrolati, Andrea Reale, Thomas M. Brown, Aldo Di Carlo Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy (CHOSE) Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”.

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scaling of dye solar cells from single cells to modules and panels

Scaling of Dye Solar Cells: from single cells to modules and panels

Stefano Penna, Riccardo Riccitelli, Eleonora Petrolati,

Andrea Reale, Thomas M. Brown, Aldo Di Carlo

Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy (CHOSE)

Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”

PLMCN10, Cuernavaca (Mex) 12-16 April, 2010

outline
Outline
  • Introduction to Dye Solar Cells
  • Optimization strategies for efficiency improvement
  • Upscaling: from DSC test cells to modules and panels
  • Conclusions
centre for hybrid and organic solar energy
Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy
  • Set in 2007 upon Lazio Region 3-year funding
    • 600 m2 lab facilities in the Hi-Tech District of Rome (Tecnopolo Tiburtino)
    • 50 people: 5 Prof, 5 Assistant Prof, 9 Post Doc, 20 PhD, 11 post-grad
  • Totally focused on Organic and Hybrid Photovoltaic technologies
    • Materials
    • Processing towards inline automation
    • Up-scaling towards large area devices
    • Modeling and simulation tools

51%

  • Technological Transfer to industry
    • Two spin-off companies hosted
      • Dyers for technology development
      • TiberCAD for modeling
    • Industrial partnership within Dyepower

CHOSE

http://www.tiberlab.org

http://www.dyers.it

structure of a dsc
Structure of a DSC

Glass Substrate

Transparent Conducting Oxide (FTO)

Catalyst (Platinum, graphite)

Electrolyte I-/I-3

Dye Molecules on TiO2

nanostructured TiO2

Transparent Conducting Oxide (FTO)

Glass Substrate

working principle of a dsc
Working principle of a DSC

No permanent chemical transformation in the materials composing the cell

I3- + 2e-

2S + I3-

S + hv

S*

S*

S++ e−(TiO2)

2S+ + 3I-

3I-

Titania (10 mm) Dye Electrolyte (50 mm) Catalyst (10 nm)

I-

I3-

Red

unique aesthetical features
Unique aesthetical features

Colour tuning, Transparency

Customized patterning

new manufacturing process
“New” manufacturing process

Organic Electronics

Conventional Electronics

Conventional semiconductor industry

Printing methods

High temperature, doping, vacuum pocessing

Liquid deposition

Small Medium enterprises

(some M€ fab)

Large enterprises

(tens of M€ fab)

other advantages of dsc technology
Other advantages of DSC technology
  • Lower fabrication cost than Silicon PV
    • In DSC cost imposed by processing
    • In Silicon PV 80% cost imposed by silicon wafer production
  • Ideal for Building Integration
    • Indipendent on lighting angle
    • Better working under scattered light than direct light
    • Availability for transparency, colour tuning, customized patterning
  • Higher energy produced during 1 year than Silicon PV upon the same Wp installed, despite lower Wp efficiency (11% vs 25% on lab cells)
  • Lower fab cost  lower entrance barrier for investors
  • Lower energy payback
  • High environmental compatibility
optimization parameters
Optimization parameters

TiO2

Dye

Easy

Electrolyte

Medium

Counter-Electrode

Critical

Encapsulation

Layout

Difficult

Printing Technique

slide10
Dyes

N719 Dye

11%

Rutenium-Based Dyes

Efficiency

Organic Dyes

Industrial Dyes

1%

Natural Dyes

dye management
Dye management

Spectral response can be enlarged by a double-dye strategy involving an IR absorber beyond the green absorber (N719 and similar)

Absorbance External Quantum Efficiency

Colonna, Di Carlo, Bignozzi, Brown, Reale et al., under submission

tio2 management
TiO2 management

S. Ito et al., Adv. Mater. 2006, 18, 1202–1205

Tayloring the TiO2 surface by the use of Scattering Layers (SLs) to trap light in the working electrode

+ 22.5%

D. Colonna et al. / Superlattices and Microstructures 47 (2010) 197201

upscaling from test cells to modules
Upscaling: from test cells to modules
  • In a test cell performances are ruled by materials
  • In large area cells and modules performances are ruled by technology
    • large area deposition
    • sealing and encapsulation
    • high series resistance of TCO electrodes (8 Wsq)  interconnections among cells needed

Test cell (0.5 x 0.5 cm2)

Module 10 x 20 cm2

module lay out

+

+

+

Module lay-out

Z-configuration

  • series connection
  • ideal for BIPV
  • interconnection dispensing is critical

W-configuration

  • series connection
  • no need for interconnection dispensing
  • not good for BIPV
  • problem with electrical balancing

P-configuration

  • parallel connection
  • grid dispensing is less critical

Pictures courtesy of

module performance
Module performance
  • Micro vertical interconnections (20 micron) for high level of transparency

37 cm2 module with 4 Z micro-interconnected cells (cell area = 9.4 cm2).

Micro-interconnections (Z)

large area from modules to panels
Large area: from modules to panels

Panel 0.8 x 0.6 m2

Module 20 x 10 cm2

panel lay out
Panel lay-out

First DSC panel @ CHOSE

Panels 0.8 x 0.6 = 0.48 m2

20 Modules: 4 strings of 5 Modules Series Interconnected

strings composition
Strings composition

Series interconnected DSC module  Nickel conducting paste

+

-

-

-

+

+

dsc strings performance

+

+

DSC Strings performance
  • Higher current production in Z strings
  • Higher voltage in W strings (one cell more per module)
  • Better fitting in W strings

W-type

Z-type

h = 5.03 %

h = 3.34 %

panel assembly
Panel assembly

Strings are aligned on a glass slab, protected by soldering bypass diodes (one per module) and parallel connected by bus bar

Glass lamination and Silicone fillingforprotection, UV filtering and higherresistancetoenvironmental and mechanical stress

panels performance
Panels performance
  • Outdoor testing at 1 sun (1000 W/m2)
  • Panel perpendicular at sun light
chose within dyepower consortium
CHOSE within Dyepower Consortium
  • 10 M€ framework agreement for the industrialization of DSC based continous glass envelopes for real BIPV
  • Transparency and aesthetics have primary roles in the development step
  • Automation purposed approach as a

fundamental guide line

http://www.permasteelisa.it/

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Upscaling from cell to module is not trivial, but proper engineering on modules lay-out and deposition technologies can reduce the drop of efficiency
  • Final upscaling from module to string and panel is less difficult, even if additional aesthetical issues must be considered
  • Final target of 5% efficiency on DSC panel is not far
  • Long term stability is the last hurdle for commercialization …

… but we’re workin on it !

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

Collaborators:

  • Univ. Ferrara, Chemistry Dep. (Prof. Bebo Bignozzi)
  • Sapienza Univ. Rome, Energy Dep. (Prof. Michelotti, Dr. Dominici)
  • Sapienza Univ. Rome, Chemistry Dep. (Prof. Decker)
  • Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Physics Dep. (Maestro Pino Eramo)
  • Univ. Turin, Chemistry Dep. (Prof. Viscardi)
  • Regione Puglia, Ass. “Nessuno Tocchi Raffaele”
  • Univ. Sevilla, (Prof. Colodrero)

All people @ CHOSE, special thanks to:

  • Daniele Colonna
  • Alessandro Lanuti
  • Simone Mastroianni
  • Lorenzo Dominici

http://www.chose.it/