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HIV AND AIDS

HIV AND AIDS

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HIV AND AIDS

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  1. HIV AND AIDS

  2. T Cells • T cells are a type of white blood cell • There are 3 types of T cells: • Helper T cells: also known as CD4+cells; these detect infection and tell B cells to make antibodies • Cytotoxic T cells: attack virus-infected cells • Suppressor T cells: stop the immune system when the fight against the invaders has been won

  3. HIV • HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus • This virus attacks the Helper T cells (CD4+) of the immune system • A normal CD4+ count is between 500 to 1000 cells/mm3 of blood

  4. AIDS • AIDS stands for Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome • This is the last stage of HIV infection • A person is considered to have AIDS if their CD4+ count is lower than 200 cells/mm3 and has one or more opportunistic infections

  5. Opportunistic Infections • Occur when the CD4+ count falls below 350 cells/mm3 • Caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi that are normally present on or in the body • People with normal immune systems can fight off these invaders • People with weakened immune systems can’t, so the invaders cause infections • That’s why they are called opportunistic, because they take advantage of the weakened immune system

  6. Examples of Opportunistic Infections • Cytomegalovirus (CMV): causes pneumonia, encephalitis, gastroenteritis, and retinitis • Kaposi’s sarcoma: cancer of the blood vessels • Pneumocystiscarinii pneumonia • Wasting syndrome: causes loss of more than 10% of body weight and is accompanied by more than 30 days of diarrhea or weakness and fever

  7. HIV Transmission • HIV is transmitted through the exchange of body fluids • For example: • Sexual contact • Pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding • Injection drug use (sharing needles) • Blood transfusion and organ transplant (very rare in the U.S. because of screening) • Occupational exposure (healthcare workers)

  8. Statistics (2010) • An estimated 49,200 Americans are newly infected with HIV each year. • There are approximately 1.1 million Americans who are living with HIV/AIDS. • The CDC estimates that 16% of HIV-positive people don’t know they are infected—meaning they may be transmitting HIV without knowing it. • People of color are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Nearly half of new infections (44%) were among African Americans, who make up only 12% of the U.S. population. Hispanics accounted for 21% of new HIV infections—and make up only about 16% of the U.S. population.

  9. Common Myths • A person with HIV or AIDS looks sick. • Only gay people get HIV/AIDS. • Some people have been cured of HIV. • HIV isn’t a big deal anymore. A person can take a pill once a day and be fine. • Being HIV-positive is the same thing as having AIDS. • A person can get HIV from touching or kissing someone with HIV. • I am not at risk because I am in a monogamous relationship.

  10. Acknowledgment • http://www.aids.gov