British Colonization • Great Britain had controlled India for nearly two hundred years, but by the early 1900s the British control of the region was starting to weaken. • Nationalism began to grow. • Indian National Congress was formed. • Mohandas Gandhi’s leadership was strong.
What is nationalism? • Nationalism is loyalty and devotion to a nation. • In the early 1900s, nationalism grew in India. • Indians were upset by British rule, because they were treated as second-class citizens in their own country.
The Indian National Congress • The Indian National Congress (INC) was formed in 1885. • The goal of the organization was to gain rights and opportunities for the people of India. • By the mid-1930s, the INC had won some self-rule for Indians. • The British told Indians to fight for allies in World War II. • Forced to participate in war for democracy while being denied independence, the INC refused to support Britain’s war effort.
Mohandas Gandhi • Gandhi led India’s struggle for independence from Great Britain. • He encouraged the practice of nonviolence, ahimsa. • Under Gandhi’s leadership, millions of Indians participated in nonviolent resistance against British rule. • Gandhi led fasts, protest marches, and boycotts of British goods.
Independence • Although Gandhi’s protests were peaceful, the British imprisoned him and INC officials on several occasions. • Riots began to erupt regularly. • This convinced the British that maintaining control of India was too costly. • Gandhi’s efforts were successful. • India won independence from Britain in 1947.
Let’s Review • Name three things that caused British control in India to weaken. • Explain the goal of the Indian National Congress (INC). • Explain Gandhi’s role in the independence movement. • What is nationalism?