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Geography • Nile River – 4,100 miles flowing S to N • Yearly floods (July /October ) • Predictable • Silt – fertile black mud • Desert all around • How does this help the Egyptians? • How does it hurt them? • Cataracts = rapids • How would these make life more difficult? • Nile split into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt
Three “Phases” • Old Kingdom – 2600-2180 BCE • Capital at Memphis • United Upper and Lower Egypt • Ruled as pharaohs • God-Kings • Religious head too • Called the sun to rise, Nile to flood, and crops to rise • Government called a theocracy • Rule based on religious authority • State and Religion
Religion • Polytheistic – believed in over 2,000 gods • Pharaohs had ka, an eternal life force, that helped rule Egypt after their death • Needed tombs, pyramids, to maintain control • Afterlife! Would be judged on their deeds • What does this sound like? • How much does your heart weigh??
Entry to Eternal Life Devourer of Souls - Ammit
See Ya Later • Pyramids! • Royal tombs • Great Pyramid of Giza • Limestone blocks weighing 2.5 tons • Some weighed 15 tons • 2 million blocks stacked to 481 feet • Covered 13 acres • How would they move the blocks? • Who built these massive structures? • What is a down side to these tombs?
Three “Phases” • Middle Kingdom – 2040-1640 BCE • Built canal from Nile to Red Sea • Improved trade and transportation • Are there any negative effects? • Defeated by the Hysoks who ruled Egypt
Egyptian Writing Systems • Hieroglyphics • Flexible writing system • “sacred carvings” • Picture stands for an idea • Wrote on papyrus • Reeds from the Nile • The ability to read Hieroglyphics was lost until what “stone” was found?
Let’s Keep Time! • Calendar • Keep track of flooding • Calculated 365 day years • 12 months of 30 days • 5 days for holidays • Only off our solar year by 6 hours
Social Classes Could move up and down based on success and marriage
Three “Phases” • New Kingdom – 1570-1075 BCE • Greatest Egyptian empire • Conquered territory with bronze weapons and chariots (what was this the equivalent of?) • Hatshepsut – Female pharaoh promoted trade, not just war • Increased wealth and prosperity • Built massive temples and pyramids • Any downside to all this building?