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The Ancient Egyptians

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  1. The Ancient Egyptians

  2. Ancient Egypt: Why so stable? • Ancient Egypt lasted for 3500 years due to factors in: • Geography • Politics • Social structure • Education • Economy • Religion Stability was goal and change slow and cautious

  3. What was the “SOUL” of Ancient Egypt? • THE NILE was considered the SOUL as it was the source of life and path to immortality • Egyptians lived on Eastern side but were buried on Western side • River was symbol of passage of one life to next (eternity) • Creation story began in swirling waters of the Nile when god Horus gave power to Pharaohs Click here for Creation Story

  4. A View of Egypt by Satellite

  5. The Fertile Nile Valley

  6. The Annual Flooding of the Nile

  7. Nile Irrigation-the Shaduf Irrigation means to bring water to farm lands.

  8. Egypt and the Nile

  9. Farming in the Nile floodplain The Nile floodplain Felucca boats

  10. What determined Egypt’s economic prosperity? Wealth • Agriculturemade up most of Egypt’s wealth – grain, vegetables, fruit, cattle, goats, pigs, and fowl • Economy • Simple economy based on agriculture and minerals from desert • Access to the Mediterranean allowed for trade • Trading was done by bartering goods (grain, oil, wheat) • Extensive trading made Egypt a powerful influence on culture, art, ideas and technology • Trade eventually grew and expanded, bringing new ideas and goods into Egyptian society

  11. Geography: Populated Areas 1. The Nile Valley Sole source of water for Egypt Predictable flooding provided rich fertile soil Both revered and feared (too much flooding or droughts) • The Nile Delta Area where Nile empties into Mediterranean Sea Largest piece of fertile land Encompassed major centers of Egypt • Faiyum Lake Moeris lies at end of branch of Nile is centerof oasis called Faiyum Irrigation from Nile made Faiyum the third most populated land

  12. Fertile soil deserts provided protection and shelter from outside influences Access to Mediterranean increased and expanded trade and culture culture was one of stability and not rapid change Deserts were an important source of minerals and building supplies (copper, tin, gold and natron, the drying agent used in mummification) Video Geographic Effects on Egypt’s stability and history

  13. Menes: Unifier of Upper & Lower Egypt c. 3050 B. C. E. ? UNIFICATION OF EGYPT: King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt and wears double crown in 3100 BCE. Following Menes came 31 dynasties over 3000 years. Video

  14. A mural of Narmer or Menes conquering Lower Egypt (c.a. 3100 B.C.)

  15. Relief showing men, women, and children suffering from the effects of severe famine The End of the Old Kingdom Professor Fekri Hassan examining ancient hieroglyphs which tell of appalling suffering. A third of the population died and the most ordered of empires was brought to chaos. This marked the end of the Old Kingdom. 

  16. Pyramids • These are the Giza pyramids, the most famous. • Pyramids were tombs for the kings. • These were built in 3500 B.C.E. • How old are they?

  17. Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara

  18. The first pyramid built by Zoser, which exists even today, in Sakkarah, the necropolis of Memphis. Built in the year 2650 BC by the architect Imhotep, It is the oldest monumental work in stone known to man. Exterior walls of white limestone. The wall has 14 doors, 13 of them false. In its interior lies the chamber of the Pharaoh Sneferu with pink granite and sealed with a block of stone weighing three tons

  19. “Bent” Pyramid of King Sneferu

  20. Plan of the Great Pyramid of Khufu

  21. The burial of the king, as well as his passage from this world to the next, was of great importance to everyone. The ritual cycle by which the living pharaoh, the god Horus, became Osiris, Lord of the Underworld, guaranteed the survival of Egypt itself. By building the pyramids all Egyptians believed in a single religion of ancestor worship in which the pyramids served as reminders. Video about Pyramids Video- Journals Through History

  22. Education • All children, regardless of social class, received some education • Goal for education was to ensure youth exhibited self control and good manners • At 14, young boys followed fathers in jobs, and girls learned from mothers in the household • Children of priests were schooled more formally • Literacy was stressed for government jobs • Education respected for creating a well rounded individual

  23. Hieroglyphics

  24. Papyrus  Paper Hieratic Scroll Piece Papyrus Plant

  25. Egyptian Math What number is this?

  26. Hieroglyphic “Cartouche”

  27. Hieroglyphics “Alphabet” 24 “letters” + 700 phonetic symbols

  28. History of Writing: 1) pictograms (sun= sun) 2) ideograms (sun = sun, daylight, warmth, light)3) phonograms: symbols that suggest a particular sound; related ideas and also sound (Sun = sun, son, Sunday) • Each hieroglyph found in pyramids and tombs often symbolized more than one consonant. Not only that, but actual Egyptian hieroglyphs were a combination of sound-signs, pictograms, and ideograms. No wonder it was so hard to decode them!

  29. New Kingdom= 700 hieroglyphs in common usage, while rest were phonograms • 100 were strictly visual, while rest were phonograms • Eventually scribes adapted hieroglyphic symbols • By 700 BCE, script was used for secular matters such as letters, accounts and record keeping • Video

  30. Rosetta Stone • A stone with writing on it in Egyptian and Greek. It was carved in 196 BCE. • Written in three scripts (hieroglyphs for religious documents; demotic- common script of Egypt; Greek- language of the rulers of Egypt at that time) • Written so that the priests, government officials and rulers of Egypt could read what it said. • Found in 1799 • Written by a group of priests in Egypt to honor the Egyptian pharaoh. It lists all of the things that the pharaoh had done that were good for the priests and the people of Egypt.

  31. PHARAOHS CROWNED WITH SHEPHERD’S CROOK AND FLAIL The Middle Kingdom (2050-1653 B.C.) was characterized by a new concern of the pharaohs for the people. In the Old Kingdom, the pharaoh had been viewed as an inaccessible god-king. Now he was portrayed as the shepherd of his people.

  32. The Hyksos were a neighboring group that had new horse-drawn war-chariots. This invention, never seen before in Egypt, allowed the Hyksos to control this region. They utilized superior bronze weapons and chariots to help them take control of Egypt. Within 50 years, they had also managed to take control of the important Egyptian city of Memphis. This was the end of the Middle Kingdom.

  33. Starting in 1567 B.C., the pharaoh Ahmose I eventually managed to defeat and expel the Hyksos from Egypt, reuniting Egypt and establishing the New Kingdom (c. 1567-1085 B.C.). The New Kingdom was characterized by a new militaristic and imperialistic path. A more professional army was developed. Ahmose and his army driving out the Hyksos.

  34. Queen Hatshepsut • Ruled from 1503-1482 B.C. • Married to Thutmose II • After her husband died, Hatshepsut dressed like a man and ruled as a pharaoh. • She became the first female pharaoh in Egyptian history.

  35. Hatshepsut’s Accomplishments • Worked hard to increase Egyptian trade through trade routes. • As a result: • trade expanded • Increase of wealth in the economy

  36. Results of Hatshepsut’s Accomplishments • She used the money that was gained from trade to support the arts as well as architecture. • A temple near Thebes was built to honor Queen Hatshepsut for the many great temples and monuments that were built during her reign.

  37. Honoring Queen Hatshepsut • Queen Hatshepsut died after ruling for 15 years. • After her death, Queen Hatshepsut’s step-son, Tuthmosis III, took the throne and vandalized Hatshepsut’s monuments.

  38. Ramses II 1297 BCE - Reign of Ramses II. He had over 200 wives and girlfriends, approximately 90 sons and 60 daughters and reigned over 67 years! His reign saw massive building projects in Egypt. The Exodus of Jews from Egypt also may have occurred during his reign. Ramses II1279-1212 B. C.

  39. King Ramses’ Accomplishments • Although known for being one of Egypt’s greatest warriors, he was also known as a peace-maker, by being the first king in history to ever sign a peace treaty with his enemies, the Hittites.

  40. King Ramses’ Death • King Ramses died in the early 1200’s BC. • His mummy is known to be one of the best preserved.

  41. Abu Simbel:Monument to Ramses II 1279-1213 B. C.

  42. Ankhenaton: First Monotheist? • Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347 B.C.) introduced the worship of Aton, god of the sun disk, as the chief god and pursued his worship with enthusiasm. • Changing his own name to Akhenaten (“It is well with Aton”), the pharaoh closed the temples of other gods. 1352-1336 B. C.

  43. The Ankh – The “Cross” of Life

  44. QueenNefertiti Nefertiti (ca. 1370 BC – ca. 1330 BC) was the Great Royal Wife of the EgyptianPharaohAkhenaten. Nefertiti and her husband were known for the worship of only one god. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nofretete_Neues_Museum.jpg

  45. Invasion of the “Sea Peoples” around 1200 B.C. The days of Egyptian empire were ended, and the New Kingdom expired with the end of the twentieth dynasty in 1085 B.C. For the next thousand years, despite periodic revivals of strength, Egypt was dominated by Libyans, Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians. Egyptian Drawings of Two Different Tribes of Sea People

  46. Egyptian Social Classes

  47. Shabtis: The Pharaoh’s Servants in the Afterlife