Baghdad • One of the most important cities • Located in what is now present day Iraq • Major center of learning. • Abbasids made it the capital. • Between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, crossroads of trade routes and connecting distant parts of empire. • Double wall with four heavily guarded gates surround city (sound familiar ?)
Fatimid dynasty • A Muslim ruling family in Egypt and North Africa descended from Fatimah, Muhammad’s daughter. • This dynasty build their own capital in Cairo, Egypt. • Competition for Baghdad. • University became most advanced in Muslim world
Capital Break Down • Baghdad- one of the world’s largest cities • Cairo-University became most advanced in the Muslim world • Cordoba-Muslim capital in Spain. One of the largest and wealthiest cities in the world. Jews, Christians, and Muslims worked and studied together in this cultural center.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=10vDVB5b6aA&feature=related Above link: Muslim call to prayer Mosques usually have a minaret with sm/balcony where the muezzin chanted the call to prayer. The Mosque
Mosque cont. • Inside the Mosque • Worshipers sit on Mats • Imam: Prayer leader • Minbar: raised pulpit where the imam gives his sermon • Mihrab: this indicates the direction of Makkah • Different styles and designs reflect artistic heritage of their builders (meaning not all mosques are alike)
Scholarship and Learning • “The ink of the scholars is more precious than the blood of martyrs.” -Muhammad
Shared language helped to promote ideas among other cultures. Beginning of 8th century Arabic became the language of scholarship and science throughout Muslim lands (these lands were far reaching) Acceptance of the Arabic Language
Not only did common language allow better exchange of ideas throughout Europe, North Africa and Middle east, but in 830 The House of Wisdom was built. This house allowed scholars from many lands to come together and do research and translate texts. The House of Wisdom
Science and Technology • Zoology- scientific study of animals. • Established zoos • Astronomy • Astrolabes-used to locate the direction of Makkah and other religious purposes
Irrigation and Underground Wells • Muslim farmers learned how to get water to their fields through irrigation. They built canals from rivers to their dry land. They used farm animals, such as donkeys and even camels, to turn water wheels that powered flour mills and brought water to the higher canals. Animals also turned wheels that brought water out of wells so people could use the water for drinking, cleaning, and irrigation.
Geography and Navigation • Divided world into climate zones • Believed earth was round when most thought it flat • Calculated Earth’s circumference within nine miles of its correct value. • Created accurate maps • Adapted navigation technology like the compass for the Chinese
“THE FATHER OF ALGEBRA” • Al-Khwarizmi – word algebra comes from one of his books. Worked in the house of wisdom during the 9th century. • Helped to spread the Indian concept of zero, zero in Arabic means something empty. • We still use Arabic numerals today!!
Doctors established the world’s first hospitals. By the 10th century, Baghdad had at least five hospitals. Most cities and towns had at least one. Anyone who needed treatment could get it! The government picked up the tab. Pharmacists made hundreds of medications. During delicate operations drugs such as opium and hemlock put patients to sleep before operations. Medicine( This is where some of the most important Muslim contributions were made)
Medicine cont. • Not only did Muslims have hospitals but they also created hospital caravans that brought medical care to people in remote villages. • al-Razi - realized that infectious diseases were caused by bacteria. He also studied small pox and measles helping to diagnose and treat these diseases.
Book Making • 8th century learned the art of making paper from the Chinese • Muslims begin creating books • Growth of Muslim culture
Literature • Books became a big business in Muslim world, more than 100 book stores in Baghdad • One famous collection of stories A Thousand and One Nights, aka, Arabian Nights. You may know some of these stories from the book like: Aladdin’s magic lamp or Sinbad the Sailor. • Islamic Mysticism- a form of religious belief and practice involving sudden insight and intense experiences of God.
Known for decorative art Rejected the use of images of humans or animals in art especially religious art. “Only God can create something that is alive” Instead used shapes and patterns found in nature. ART
Arabesque- type of art were they took their beauty from the natural world Calligraphy- highest form of decorative art. Beautiful handwriting Textiles- beautiful cloths-some featured long bands of inscriptions Art cont.
Music in Muslim Spain • Unique blend of Arab and Spanish cultures. • Ziryab- a talented musician and singer from Baghdad--established Europe's first conservatory • Conservatory- advanced school of music • Singing essential part of Muslim Spain’s musical culture. Poets and musicians worked together to create songs about love and nature.
Recreation • They did not invent it but boy did they make it popular!! • Polo – Muslims adapted and refined the game and it’s played all over the world today • Chess- Introduced in the mid 600’s it became so popular chess championships were held. Both men and women could play in these championships