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Iraq: Commitment and involvement of government and a broad range of actors in a complex urban response. Displacement in Baghdad. Roughly 1.6 million Iraqis displaced following violence in 2006: Host families, rental, new housing, IDP Camps/Informal Settlements. Source: UN-Habitat; IOM.
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Iraq: Commitment and involvement of government and a broad range of actors in a complex urban response
Displacement in Baghdad Roughly 1.6 million Iraqis displaced following violence in 2006: Host families, rental, new housing, IDP Camps/Informal Settlements Source: UN-Habitat; IOM
Displacement in Baghdad: Camps Vacated Government Building used by IDPs. Photo by NRC Concrete Block House. Photo by NRC Straw House Photo by NRC Tin Can Houses. Photo by NRC
Durable Solutions: Options & Approaches National Level IDP Requirements on Durable Solutions RETURN ( 35%) INTEGRATE (44 %) RESETTLE (16 %) Source IOM 2011 Baghdad IDP Requirements on Durable Solutions Survey of Camps in Baghdad (Source NRC 2011) By now: 80% of IDPs in camps in Baghdad wish to integrate locally (NRC)
Direct implementation challenges • Access to land • Access to services • Allocation process • Livelihood and social capital • Cost – is it justified in middle income country? UN-Habitat IDP Housing in Soran
Iraq National Strategy Longer-term shelter solutions for people affected by displacement Strategy Principles Land for Housing Dispute Resolution Basic Services Housing Options Housing Finance Host community Livelihoods Governance
Durable Solutions: Options & Approaches INTEGRATE RETURN RESETTLE Relocation (ideally locally) Upgrading • Land Sharing • Pool land together to conduct urban upgrading • Focus on collaboration among landowners, land users, the government, and private developers
Relocation • When to Relocate? • Residents understand the need to relocate and agree. • a. Lost land or hazardous land. • b. Conflict/Insecurity threatens lives. • c. Land is not suited/ zoned for residential uses • Public Interest (i.e. right of way, school, clinic). • Relocation site meets requirements. • Clear plan to stop future encroachment and use land
In-situ Upgrading When to upgrade? 1. Housing conditions in the settlement are acceptable to the IDPs in the short run. 2. The involved IDPs cannot return to place of origin. 3. Land is not needed for public uses. 4. Existing land subdivision, land uses, and building structures meet planning standards. 5. The settlement is free of health and environmental hazard risks.
Land Sharing When to conduct land sharing? The involved IDPs prefer to stay in the area because of jobs or income generating opportunities and social capital. The community is organized and values improvements in neighborhood amenities. The area is under redevelopment pressure with high land value increment potentials. Different land interests are willing to explore win-win options and to compromise. Local governments are eager to redevelop the area but lack financial resources.
Stakeholders • Technical Committee: Ministries – Displacement; Municipalities; Housing; Agriculture; Baghdad PC; Baghdad Mayorality • Key Decision Makers – Prime Minister Office; Governor of Baghdad; • Communities: opinion surveys • Provincial Council; District Councils • Private Sector Consensus Reached for Baghdad Relocate: Only if it is the only option (this is a huge turnaround of government opinion) Upgrading: Not popular with government but could be considered in low value, peripheral sites Land Sharing: Preferred Option
Value Capture through Land Sharing: Informal settlement, 9 Nissan, Baghdad BEFORE: 1120 families living informally – high proportion IDPs
Value Capture through Land Sharing: Informal settlement, 9 Nissan, Baghdad
Sequencing Phase 1
Sequencing Phase 2
Sequencing Phase 3
Outcomes • Creates public and private land spaces: • Social housing—131,000 m2 (35%): 2080 units • private residential—93,000 m2 (25%): 1010 units • commercial/industrial—12,900 m2 (3%) • Governmental—11,800 m2 (3%) • Educational and other social services 16,500 m2 (4%) • open/green space—13,000 m2 (4%) • Street and main roads—77,000 m2 (22%) • Generates a surplus of 94.8 billion IQD (US$82 million) • Requires an initial capital investment of 11.3 billion IQD (US$9.8 million), leading to an IRR of roughly 123%
ProgrammeComponents (UN-H +NRC + Iraqis) Consensus Building – getting agreement amongst stakeholders on the right approaches Community engagement – enumerations; District Council Coordination Meetings (NRC +UNHCR) Normative Framework – decision making tools (land sharing, upgrading, relocation); implementation tools – enumeration; cooperative housing; pro-poor housing finance; legislation Pilot Projects– different custodians and investors District Strategies – that will be incorporated into Baghdad Master Plan Going to Scale – political will; strong partners; clear evidence based strategy; experience learned; cost recovery
Results so far 1 – consensus of high level government on land sharing approach: pilot projects initiated 2 – agreement of Ministry of Housing to provide 25% of new houses built to IDPs (9000 units handed over since Jan 2012) 3 – COM Order 254 issued enabling land to be allocated to residents of informal settlements 4 – Amanat Baghdad is formalising 14 settlements – MOCH will provide housing 5 – Poverty Alleviation Committee is preparing a national programme to address all informal settlements