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Organization Management models for powerpoint presentations

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  1. Strategic Apex Support Staff Technostructure Middle Apex Operating Core Organization Management... 100 Slides Powered by www.drawpack.com. All rights reserved.

  2. Key Words... Organization Model – Scientific Management – Motivation Framework – Maslow’s Hierarchy – ERG Theory – Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards – Compensation Management – Job Enrichment – Group Performance – Linking Pin Organization – Likert’s Overlapping – Mintzberg’s Coordinating Mechanisms – Matrix Organization – Network Organization – Change Management – Hierarchical Structures – Formal Organization – Role Diagram – Job Description – Divisional Structures – Project Organization – Value Chain Management – Span of Control – Task Force – Organization Development – Growth Management – Learning Organization – Virtual Organization

  3. Environment Human Behavior in Organizational Settings The Individual – Organization Interface The Organization Environment A Basic Organization Model

  4. Phase 1: A Task, a Manager, and a Pool of Workers Manager Task Worker Worker Worker Worker Phase 2: Task Analysis, Breakdown, and Job Specialization by Manager T1 T3 Manager T2 T4 Worker Worker Worker Worker Phases of Scientific Management I

  5. Phase 3: Task Assignment and Training T1 T3 Worker Worker Manager T2 T4 Worker Worker Phase 4: Continued Supervision, Coordination, and Planning by Manager Manager T3 T1 Worker Worker T4 T2 Worker Worker Phases of Scientific Management II

  6. 1 Need Deficiencies 6 Need Deficiencies Reassessed by the Employee 2 Search for Ways to Satisfy Needs The Employee 5 Rewards or Punishments 3 Goal-Directed Behaviors 4 Performance The Basic Motivation Framework

  7. GENERAL EXAMPLES ORGANIZATIONAL EXAMPLES Achievement Challenging Job Self- Actualization Needs Status Job Title Esteem Needs Friends in Work Group Friendship Belongingness Needs Stability Pension Plan Security Needs Shelter Base Salary Physiological Needs Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Human Needs

  8. Herzberg‘s Two-Factor Theory Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs Alderfer‘s ERG Theory Other Key Needs Achievement Work Itself Responsibility Advancement and Growth Self-Actualization Needs Growth Needs Need for Achievement Motivation Factors Need for Power Recognition Self-Esteem Esteem Needs Respect of Others Need for Affiliation Relatedness Needs Supervision Interpersonal Relations Belongingness Needs Security Company Policies Interpersonal Security Security Needs Physical Security Hygiene Factors Existence Needs Pay Working Conditions Physiological Needs Parallels Among Need Theories of Motivation

  9. Time • Effort • Knowledge • Skills • Creativity • Energy contributes to The Employee The Organization which rewards with for which • Pay • Benefits • Vacation • Status • Opportunities for Creativity • Occasions for Social Contributions The Individual-Organization Exchange Process

  10. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards The Individual Surface Value Symbolic Value Attitudes and Behaviors The Meaning of Organizational Rewards

  11. Annual Compensation for an Employee Awards Perquisites Incentives Benefits Salary A Total Compensation Package

  12. Scientific Management High Job Enlargement Job Rotation Specialized Craft Jobs DEGREE OF JOB SPECIALIZATION Job Enrichment Job Characteristics Theory Social Information Processing Autonomous Work Groups General Craft Jobs Low Early 1960s to Present Late 1940s to Early 1960s To 1900s Around 1900 to Late 1940s TIME The Historical Development of Job Design

  13. Composition Size Group Performance Norms Cohesiveness Four Factors that Affect Group Performance

  14. Likert‘s Overlapping Work Groups (The Linking Pin Organization)

  15. Manager M M Analyst A A O O O O Operator Operator (1) MUTUAL ADJUSTMENT (2) DIRECT SUPERVISION M A O O INPUT SKILLS (3) WORK PROCESSES (4) OUTPUTS (5) STANDARDIZATION Mintzberg‘s Five Coordinating Mechanisms

  16. FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTALIZATION Marketing Department Research and Development Department Purchasing Department Production Department Manager Manager Manager Manager PROJECT DEPARTMENTALIZATION Alpha Project Project Leader E E E E Beta Project Project Leader E E E E Gamma Project Project Leader E E E E A Matrix Design

  17. SENDING Encoding Transmission Decoding Source Receiver/ Responder Noise Decoding Medium Encoding FEEDBACK LOOP (Verification) Basic Communication Process

  18. WHEEL CHAIN CIRCLE ALL CHANNEL Small Group Communication Networks

  19. RESISTANCE POWER People Structure Organization as Social System Information Systems Tasks CONTROL REDEFINITION Four Major Problems in Change Management

  20. Decreasing power in decision making Increasing number of people Increasing stature Increasing reward Hierarchy and Decision Making

  21. Cellular Structures Placed into Hierarchical Structures

  22. Managerial and Organizational Integration Within the Organic Enterprise Decreasing power; extreme narrowing of responsibilities A A Increasing responsibility importance of decision making; perceptual requirements B B Responsibility Information load Cost of wrong decisions Level B Level A HIERARCHICAL LEVEL The Non-Linearity of Power and Decision Load

  23. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT INNOVATIVE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Innovation Creativity Project champion • Evaluation • systems • Analysis • Strategic • considerations • Project • management • R&D • Design • Production • Marketing Project proposal Idea Product Project R&D Dept. Marketing Dept. THE COMPANY Knowledge of market needs Scientific and technological knowledge Technological Innovation as a Result of Complex Interactions

  24. Strategic analysis Marketing department R & D Financial control and analysis Process development Maintenance and services Design Product planning Further Developments of Multidirectional Communication and Involvement

  25. OrganizationInternalactivitiesandprocesses Resourceinputs Product and serviceoutputs Systemresourceapproach Internalprocessapproach Goalapproach Organizational Effectiveness

  26. Structure Hierarchy Task and role definition Performance measurement Coordination and control Rules and procedures Routines Norms, values Group / inter-group behavior Coalitions, alliances, power Perceptions, mental maps Organizational culture Formal and Informal Organization

  27. Organizational effectiveness Degree of formal organization Optimum Degree of Formal Organization

  28. environment fit organizationaleffectiveness differentiation task strategy integration membercharacteristics contingencyfactors organizationdesign outcome Contingency Framework for Organization Design

  29. Positions Processes Who doeswhat in whichprocess?(action, decision,information, ...) Position Tasks Competencies Responsibilities Reporting relationships ... Organization Chart, Role Diagram, Job Description

  30. multi-business CEO SBU A SBU C SBU B functionalunit R&D R&D R&D Sales Prod. Prod. singlebusiness Sales Sales => different design issues on different levels Levels of Organization Design

  31. CEO CEO Controlling R&D Logistics Manufacturing Sales Finance Cement Concrete Chemicals CEO CEO Europe North America Asia Europe North America Asia Motor Motor Motor Cement Marine Marine Marine Concrete Fire Fire Chemicals Functional, Divisional, Multidivisional Structures

  32. CEO CEO Project Unit A Unit B Unit C Project Unit A Unit B Unit C CEO Strategy Finance IT Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Project Structures

  33. Low-Moderate Uncertainty Low Uncertainty 1. Mechanistic structure;formal, centralized 2. Many departments, some boundary spanning 3. Few integrating roles 4. Some imitation 5. Some planning 1. Mechanistic structure;formal, centralized 2. Few departments 3. No integrating roles 4. Little imitation 5. Current operations orientation Stable ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE High-Moderate Uncertainty High Uncertainty 1. Organic structure, teamwork;participative, decentralized 2. Few departments, boundaryspanning 3. Few integrating roles 4. Quick to imitate 5. Planning orientation 1. Organic structure, teamwork; participative, decentralized 2. Many departments: differentiated, extensiveboundary spaning 3. Many integrating roles 4. Extensive imitation 5. Extensive planning, forecasting Unstable Simple Complex ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLEXITY Mechanistic vs. Mechanic Designs in Context

  34. = + hierarchicalboundaries functionalboundaries operationalislands => filtering of information=> functional closure=> leadership problems => coordination problems Problems of Traditional Organization Design

  35. CEO Procurement Production Sales Administration Transportation Order documents Inventoryoperation Production Shipping Billing Procurementorder Productionorder Order Customer Link between Structure and Process

  36. Company infrastructure Human Resource Management Supportprocesses Technology development Procurement Entrylogistics Operations Marketingandsales Exitlogistics Customerservice Primary processes Organizational Value Chain

  37. collaboration large coordination "?" delegation Size of Organization red tape direction control creativity autonomy small leadership young mature Age of Organization The Development of Organization Design over Time

  38. Strategic Apex Support Staff Technostructure Middle Apex Operating Core The Five Basic Parts of Organizations

  39. The Flow of Formal Authority

  40. (a) Hierarchical Structure (b) Line and Staff Structure (c) Liaison Overlay Structure (e.g., Task Force) (d) Matrix Structure Structures to Deal with Residual Interdependencies

  41. Decisional Power with the Market Managers Decisional Power with the Functional Managers Pure market structure Liaison positions superimposed on a market structure Matrix structure Task forces and standing committees superimposed on a functional structure Pure functional structure Liaison positions superimposed on a functional structure Integrated managers superimposed on a market structure Integrated managers superimposed on a functional structure A Continuum of Liaison Devices

  42. Span of Control

  43. President Vice President Industrial Relations Vice President Engineering Vice President Manufacturing Vice President Marketing Vice President Finance Functional Specialization

  44. President Vice President Industrial Relations Vice President Engineering Vice President Manufacturing Vice President Marketing Vice President Finance Shaping Department Manager Stamping Department Manager Painting Department Manager Assembly Department Manager Shipping Department Manager Process Specialization

  45. President Vice President Tricycle Division Vice President Bicycle Division Vice President Motor Scooter Division Vice President Motorcycle Division Vice President Snowmobile Division Product Specialization

  46. President Senior Vice President Marketing Vice President Industrial Relations Vice President Engineering Vice President Marketing Vice President Finance Director Wholesale Marketing Director Institutional Marketing Director Consumer Marketing Director Government Marketing Customer Specialization

  47. President Vice President Domestic Division Vice President European Division Vice President Latin American Division Vice President Pacific Division Director Northeast Director Midwest Director Southern Director Western Geographic Specialization

  48. President Assistant to President Executive Vice President Executive Vice President Vice President Industrial Relations Vice President Finance Vice President Domestic Marketing Vice President International Marketing Vice President Tricycle Division Vice President Bicycle Division Vice President Motor Scooter Division Vice President Motorcycle Division Vice President Snowmobile Division Director Institutional Marketing Director Government Marketing Director Wholesale Marketing Director Europe Marketing Director Latin America Marketing Director Pacific Marketing Shaping Department Stamping Department Painting Department Assembly Department Shipping Department Northeast Midwest Southern Western Various Forms of Specialization in a Single Organization

  49. Democratic Specialists Traditional Bureaucratic Managers Contemporary Matrix Multiform Organization

  50. Top-down Initiatives Strong Taks Force RESISTANCE Buttom-up Initiatives Weak Participative Weak Strong EXTERNAL FORCES What Type of Intervention?