Prepositions Variant Forms
Review • Inseparable Prepositions - Prepositions attached directly to a noun. For example: • בְּ(in, with, at)לְ(to, for)כְּ(like) בְּבַּיִתin a house/with a house/at a houseלְבַּיִתto a house/for a houseכְּבַּיִתlike a house Preposition + Definite Article: בַּבַּיִתin the house/with the house/at the house לַבַּיִתto the house/for the houseכַּבַּיִתlike the house
Variant Forms If the object begins with a vocal shewa, the vowel of the inseparable preposition is a hireq. For example: לִנְבִיאִיםto prophetsבִּירוּשָׁלַםִin Jerusalem If the object begins with a khatef qametsֳ , khatef patakhֲ , or khatef segol ֱ , the inseparable preposition adopts the short vowel of the object. This usually occurs in guttural first consonants. For example: בַּהֲדָרִיםin roomsכָּאֳנִיָּהlike a ship In rare instances of an object beginning with a khatef segol ֱ beneath an א, the vowel beneath the א completely disappears and the vowel of the inseparable preposition is a tsere. For example: בֵּאלׂהִיםwith God When combined with the definite article, each of these examples follows the standard rules for prepositions & definite article combination (patakh or qamets vowel, etc.)
The Prepositionמִן The preposition מִן occurs more than 7,500 times in the Hebrew Bible. The preposition מִן (from, because of, some of) has two forms: maqqep and inseparable. In the inseparable form, the nun disappears. For example: מִן־מֶלֶךְfrom a king (or) מִמֶּלֶךְfrom a king When the nun disappears, it leaves a dagesh in the first root letter. Nouns beginning with a guttural consonant (ע ,ח ,ה ,א) or ר: 1. The preposition usually takes the form of the inseparable preposition. 2. The vowel lengthens (compensatory lengthening) from a hireq to a tsere to compensate for the guttural consonant refusing to take the dagesh from the disappearing nun. For example: מֵעִירfrom a cityמֵאָבfrom a father
The Prepositionמִן When the definite article is present, the vowel lengthens to a tsere in the inseparable form. We should expect the vowel to lengthen since the ה of the definite article is a guttural consonant. The vowel does not change in the maqqep form. For example: מִן־הַמֶּלֶךְfrom the king מֵהַמֶּלֶךְfrom the king
Nun Assimilation versus Gutturals
Nun Assimilation versus Gutturals Nun Assimilation מִמֶּלֶךְ מִן מֶלֶךְ When a nun drops, it wants to put a dagesh in the following consonant מִן הַמֶּלֶךְ מִהַמֶּלֶךְ Gutturals refuse to take a dagesh so something else has to give. מֵהַמֶּלֶךְ Since the guttural refuses the dagesh, the vowel lengthens beneath the preceding consonant.
The Comparative מִן In English, we use the word “than” to create comparison. For example: The man is taller than the boy. Hebrew uses the preposition מִן to create comparison. For example: חָכָם הַנָּבִיא מִן־הַמֶּלֶךְ Literal Translation:Wise (is) the prophet from the king. Comparative translation:The prophet is wiser than the king.
The Relative Pronounאֲשֶׁר In English we use relative pronouns who, which, and that to introduce a relative clause. For example: The book that is on the table. “is on the table” explains where the book is relative to the table. The phrase “on the table” is the relative clause. In Hebrew, the relative pronoun is אֲשֶׁר and can be translated as who, which, or that depending on context. Number and gender do not affect אֲשֶׁר.