Black People in Colonial North America 1526–1763 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Black People in Colonial North America 1526–1763

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  1. 3 Black People in Colonial North America 1526–1763

  2. Black People in Colonial North America1526–1763 • The Peoples of North America • Black Servitude in the Chesapeake • Plantation Slavery, 1700–1750 • Slave Life in Early America • Miscegenation and Creolization • The Origins of African-American Culture • Slavery in the Northern Colonies • Slavery in Spanish Florida and French Louisiana

  3. Black People in Colonial North America1526–1763 (cont'd) • African Americans in New Spain's Northern Borderlands • Black Women in Colonial America • Black Resistance in Colonial America • Conclusion

  4. Black People inColonial North America • Who were the peoples of colonial North America? • How did black servitude develop in the Chesapeake? • What were the characteristics of plantation slavery from 1700 to 1750?

  5. Black People in Colonial North America (cont'd) • How did the experience of African Americans under French and Spanish rule in North America compare to that in the British colonies? • How did slavery affect black women in colonial America? • How did African Americans resist slavery?

  6. This eighteenth-century woodcut shows enslaved black men, women, and children engaged in the steps involved in the curing of tobacco

  7. The slavery codes regulated slaves and asserted the rights of slave owners.

  8. The Peoples of North America

  9. The Peoples of North America • African immigrants gave birth to the African-American people • Preserved African cultural history • African Americans shaped new way of life

  10. American Indians • By the fourteenth century, diverse American Indian cultures developed • American Indian, African relationship complicated • American Indians lived harmoniously with nature, influenced Africans • Indians were sometimes slaveholders • Africans helped defend against Indian attacks

  11. American Indians (cont'd) • Africans, Indians similarly oppressed in American colonies

  12. American Indians (cont'd) • French and Indian War • A war between Great Britain and its American Indian allies and France and its American Indian allies, fought between 1754 and 1763 for control of the eastern portion of North America

  13. Escaping slaves in the Carolinas

  14. The Spanish Empire • Spanish colonial economy enslaved Indians, Africans • African, Indian, Spanish customs intermingled in U.S., Mexico

  15. The British and Jamestown • Jamestown first permanent British colony in North America • Located in Chesapeake region, called Virginia • No gold, climate unsuitable for crops • Tobacco became mainstay of Virginia • White laborers produced most tobacco in Chesapeake colonies

  16. The British and Jamestown (cont'd) • Spanish Armada • A fleet that unsuccessfully attempted to carry out an invasion of England in 1588 • Joint-stock companies • Primitive corporations that carried out British and Dutch colonization in the Americas during the seventeenth century

  17. Africans Arrive in the Chesapeake • 1619, 32 people of African descent at Jamestown • Dutch bring 20 Angolans to Jamestown • New arrivals regarded as “unfree,” not slaves • England had no slave laws • Some Angolans Christian, Christians could not be enslaved

  18. Africans Arrive in the Chesapeake (cont'd) • First black person born in English America • Parents baptized in Church of England • Born free • Africans remained small minority in expanding Virginia colony

  19. Africans Arrive in the Chesapeake (cont'd) • Church of England • A Protestant church established in the sixteenth century as the English national or Anglican church with the English monarch as its head. After the American Revolution, its American branch became the Episcopal Church.

  20. Black Servitude in the Chesapeake

  21. Black Servitude in the Chesapeake • Demand for tobacco expanded, indentured servitude grew • Blacks, whites sold freedom for set time • Could expect to live as free people • Free black men became landowners • British assumed Africans were alien • British made slaves property of masters

  22. Black Servitude in the Chesapeake (cont'd) • Chattel Slavery • A form of slavery in which the enslaved are treated legally as property

  23. Race and the Origins of Black Slavery • Economic, demographic developments led to enslavement of Africans • Precedent set for enslaving Africans • Less poor white laborers available • African slaves become less costly • British assumed Africans were inferior • Status of black servants different than whites • Black servants would serve masters for life

  24. Race and the Origins of Black Slavery (cont'd) • House of Burgesses • A representative body established at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619

  25. The Emergence of Chattel Slavery • Children of black female servants, slaves for life • Counter to English law, where status derives from father • Enslaved Africans, African Americans had status of domestic animals • Masters who killed slaves exempted from felony charges • Slaves held accountable for transgressions

  26. The Emergence of Chattel Slavery (cont'd) • System compelled black people to involuntary servitude

  27. The Emergence of Chattel Slavery (cont'd) • Slave codes • Colonial and state laws that defined the status of slaves and the prerogatives of masters • Manumission • The act of freeing a slave by the slave's master

  28. Bacon's Rebellion andAmerican Slavery • Black slaves, white indentured servants unite against elite • Bacon dies before rebellion can occur • Elite realize danger of freed, white indentured servants • Planters switch to enslaved black labor force • Whites’ freedom, prosperity rest on denying blacks freedom

  29. Bacon's Rebellion andAmerican Slavery (cont'd) • Master class • Slaveholders

  30. Plantation Slavery, 1700–1750

  31. Plantation Slavery, 1700–1750 • European demand for tobacco expanded slave labor system

  32. Tobacco Colonies • Tobacco, rice colonies' economies dependent on black slaves • Black laborers' living conditions varied • Some masters worked together with slaves • Some masters divided slaves among many holdings • Before mid-eighteenth century nearly all slaves were fieldworkers

  33. Tobacco Colonies (cont'd) • Masters wanted slaves to work harder, faster • After 1750, some black men had skilled occupations • Black women worked in fields, homes

  34. AFRICANS BROUGHT AS SLAVES TO BRITISH NORTH AMERICA, 1701–1775

  35. Low-Country Slavery • West Indian plantation system strong in Carolina, Georgia • British settlers were Barbados slaveholders, brought slaves • Black people were chattel from start • Also center of Indian slave trade • Cultivated rice on large plantations, similar to West Indies • 1750s, rice cultivation, slavery spread to Georgia

  36. Low-Country Slavery (cont'd) • Blacks were both feared and needed • Appearance of distinct classes among people of color • Creoles, mixed-race relatives of masters, lived alongside whites • Blacks on low-country plantations had autonomy, kept heritage

  37. Plantation Technology • Africans learned crop technology, trades • Slaves prepared tobacco leaves for market • Slaves turned indigo plants into blue dye • Slaves served as carpenters, blacksmiths • Slaves tanned leather, slave artisans made boots, garments

  38. Slave Life in Early America

  39. Slave Life in Early America • Eighteenth-century slave housing was minimal, often temporary • Furniture, cooking utensils varied from place to place • In early years, cloth came from England • Later, homespun fabric was made by slaves • Clothing evolved to style of West African culture

  40. Slave Life in Early America (cont'd) • Food staples were corn, yams, salt pork • Rice important in South Carolina low country

  41. Miscegenation and Creolization

  42. Miscegenation and Creolization • Interracial sexual contacts between blacks, whites, Indians • White assemblies feared creation of mixed-race class • Creolization led African parents to produce African-American children • Miscegenation, creolization together caused physical, cultural change

  43. The Origins ofAfrican-American Culture

  44. The Origins ofAfrican-American Culture • Retained West African heritage • Extended families as reaction to slavery • Families helped others adapt, sheltered escapees • Families influenced African American naming practices • African religions persisted in America • Even when converted to Christianity indigenous practices remained

  45. The Origins of African-American Culture (cont'd) • Incest taboos • Customary rules against sexual relations and marriage within family and kinship groups • Spirit possession • A belief rooted in West African religions that spirits may possess human souls • Divination • A form of magic aimed at telling the future by interpreting a variety of signs

  46. This eighteenth-century painting of slaves on a South Carolina plantation

  47. The Great Awakening • Evangelical ministers preach spiritual equality • Africans • Africans linked spiritual equality to earthly equality • General African conversion • Africans influence church services

  48. The Great Awakening (cont'd) • Development of distinct African-American church • Blacks segregated in white churches • Masters used church to teach obedience • African-American Christianity blended West African, European elements

  49. Language, Music, and Folk Literature • Black English came from ancestral African language • Music most important aspect of African culture • American popular music influenced by African-American music • West African folk literature survived in North America

  50. Language, Music, and Folk Literature (cont'd) • Pidgens • Simplified mixtures of two or more languages used to communicate between people who speak different languages • Black English (or African-American Vernacular English) • A variety of American English that is influenced by West African grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation