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The Colonial Era Unit Review

The Colonial Era Unit Review

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The Colonial Era Unit Review

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  1. The Colonial Era Unit Review Chapters 2-7

  2. Chapter 2

  3. Catholic Irish Uprising • Ireland wanted to get rid off the Queen • Assisted by Spaniards • English defeated them and committed many atrocities to the Irish people • England planted protestant landlords in Ireland

  4. Francis Drake v. Sir Walter Raleigh

  5. Primogeniture • Only eldest sons could inherit estates • Forced younger sons to go to the new world

  6. Joint-Stock Company • Provided financial means for colonization • Ex: Virginia Company-received charter from King James I, first settlement in the new world • Savior of the Virginia company

  7. Jamestown • 1st colony in the New World • Plagued settlement w/ disease, malnutrition, starvation • Saved by John Smith • Located on Chesapeake Bay- poor decision • The Starving Time- winter, only 60/400 survived

  8. Anglo-PowhatanWars • First war between English and Powhatan tribes • Sparked by Lord De La Warr’s “Irish tactics” • peace treaty= marriage of John Rolfe to Pocahontas

  9. House of Burgesses • First form of government • Established in Virginia • Worried King Charles • Had to much power and was forced to be abandoned

  10. Lord Baltimore • Rich catholic lord from England • Established Maryland • Promised to persecuted English Catholics

  11. Act of Toleration (1649) • Passed by local representative assembly • Death penalty for atheists and Jews • Less toleration actually • Protected Catholics

  12. Sugar • Wealthy man’s crop • Growing takes lots of time and effort • Grown in the Indies • Capital intensive business • Dominated trade to much

  13. African Diaspora and Barbados Slave Code • Vast scattering of African peoples throughout the world • “codes” denied slaves fundamental rights, gave masters complete control

  14. Restoration Period • Empire building resumed but even greater than before • Under Oliver Cromwell rule • Lord Proprietors created to gain control over an expanse of wilderness to the Pacific

  15. The Carolinas • Main crop rice • Strong economic ties to the Indies • Where Virginian outcasts went • Big plantations, lots of slaves, people resisted authority, produced lots of capitol • North separated from South in 1712 as a result of friction between governors- both royal colonies

  16. Georgia • Founded with the purpose to be a buffer between Spanish Florida and the Carolinas • Often served as a battle arena • James Oglethorpe- ablest founder, interested in prison reform, military leader, imperialist/philanthropist, gained a great personal fortune

  17. Church of England • Tax supported church • Dominant faith in North Carolina though weakest of all in that state

  18. Handsome Lake • Iroquois prophet • Visions of the future • Made Indians stop drinking

  19. “soil butchery” • Excessive tobacco growing • Drove settlers westward • Began confrontation with Native Americans

  20. Chapter 3

  21. Calvinism • Whether you go to heaven or hell is already predetermined “predestination” • Nobody could be certain of their status • Worked hard to show they were part of the “elect”

  22. Separatists • Came from Holland • Wanted to practice their religion freely • Negotiated with Virginia company • Came to America on the Mayflower

  23. Mayflower Compact • Simple agreement NOT a constitution • Agreed upon a crude form of government • Written by Separatists • Signed by 41 males • Began to form their own law in open-discussions at town meetings

  24. Mass. Bay Colony and John Winthrop • Plymouth's neighbor, who absorbed it • Group of Non-separatists • Had secured a royal charter • Lead by Winthrop- first governor of the colony, believed he had a “calling” from God, helped colony become biggest in New England, and came up with “city upon a hill”

  25. Congregational Church • Franchise extended to all “freeman” • Adult males belonged to Puritan congregations • Men not in church could not vote • 2/5 majority voted

  26. Protestant Ethic • Commitment to work and worldly pursuits • Ate a lot, drank, song, and made love • Tried passing laws that would keep those pleasures

  27. Anne Hutchinson • Challenged Puritan orthodoxy • Began Antinomianism • A holy life was no sign of salvation • Brought to trial- and exiled • Killed by Indians in New York

  28. Roger Williams • Threat to Puritan leaders • Popular Salem minister • Extreme Separatist- encouraged people to leave the Church of England • Challenged Bay colony’s charter • Angry that settlers took Indian’s land • Started the first Baptist church in Rhode Island- no taxes or mandatory attendence

  29. Fundamental Orders • New Connecticut River Colony’s • Trailblazing document • Similar to constitution • Colony was in the hands of “substantial citizens” • Documents later borrowed by the state’s constitution

  30. King Phillip’s War • Massoit’s son forged alliance with other tribes to destroy New England villages • Refugees fled to Boston • Puritans were attacked 12 villages were destroyed • Hundreds of colonists died and even more Indians

  31. New England Confederation • Primary purpose- against potential foes: Indians, French, and Dutch • Exclusive Puritan club • Plymouth, Mass. Bay, New Haven, Connecticut Valley. • Hated Maine and Rhode Island

  32. Dominion of New England • Created by royal authority • Included New York, East and West Jersey • Designed to promote English Navigation Laws • Reflected intense colonial rivalries

  33. Navigation Laws • Americas couldn’t trade with other colonies that were not under the control of England

  34. Glorious Revolution • King James II, Catholic was dethroned • Enthroned Protestant rulers William III and English wife, Mary, James’ daughter

  35. Dutch West India Company • Virtually a state within a state • Supported by a large army • Dutch Republic became leading colonial power • Greatest activity in the East Indies

  36. Pequot War • Between English and Pequot Indian tribe • Lowed western settlement • Hurt the Indian population

  37. New Sweden • Trespassed on Dutch preserves • Colony on the Delaware River • Dutch fought them with small military • Bloodless siege ending in Swedes rule

  38. Peter Stuyvesant • Director Dutch military • Led small Swede expedition • Swedish rule came to end after siege • Colonists absorbed New Netherland

  39. Quakers • Came from England • Refused to pay for the Church of England • Deeply convicted • Moved to Pennsylvania • William Penn formed “Penn’s Woodland”- modest, first advertising man, liberal policy

  40. Middle Colonies • New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania • Fertile land • Rivers • Trade • Ethically diverse • Religious toleration and democratic control

  41. Chapter 4

  42. Headright System • Virginia + Maryland employment • Encourage imports of servant workers • Passage to the new world would be paid by labor and the gaining of 50 acres of land • Masters-not servants reaped land ownership

  43. Bacon’s Rebellion • Leader Nathaniel Bacon- Virginian farmer • Resented Gov Berkley’s relations with Indians • Rebellion was suppressed • Lordly planters looked for less troublesome laborers

  44. Royal African Co. • Lost monopoly on carrying slaves to colonies • Rhode Island cashed in on lucrative slave trade • Supply of slaves rose quickly • “middle passage”- transatlantic sea voyage, death rights high, horrid conditions

  45. slave codes • Established differences between slave and owner in Virginia • Blacks and their kids became property • South Carolina blacks in Stono River revolted and tried to march to Spanish Florida but stopped by militia • Slaves in the South were more obidient

  46. FFV/ merchant planters • “first families of Virginia” • Before Rev War 70% of the leaders of the Virginia legislature • Not like English but they were hard workers, labored over the plantation

  47. “Black Christianity” • Prior to the slave codes • If blacks converted to Christianity they could be free • After slave codes this was ended

  48. New England vs. Southern Women

  49. jeremiad • Mid seventeenth century Puritan pupils new form of sermon • doom-saving Old Testament profit Jeremiah • Decline in conversions

  50. Half-Way Covenant • Troubled ministers • New arrangement that allowed members of church to be baptized but not “full communion” • Partial membership rights allowed • Once Puritan only club • Puritan churches became open to all