Colonial Settlement Unit 2
Unit II Standards • SS.8.A.2.1: Compare the relationships among the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch in their struggle for colonization of North America. • SS.8.A.2.2: Compare the characteristics of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies. • SS.8.A.2.3: Differentiate economic systems of New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies. • SS.8.A.2.4: Identify the impact of key colonial figures on the economic, political, and social development of the colonies. • SS.8.A.2.5: Discuss the impact of colonial settlement on Native American populations. • SS.8.A.2.6: Examine the causes, course, and consequences of the French and Indian War. • SS.8.A.2.7: Describe the contributions of key groups (Africans, Native Americans, women, and children) to the society and culture of colonial America.
Warm Up: Warm up Activity: What are the three types of Spanish settlements? Why did the Spanish Establish Missions? OCSR: How did the first people cross into the Americas? Define: Ice Age, Caravel San Diego Mission
Daily Question to Know • Question: • How do you create a vocabulary poster? • SS.8.A.2.5: Discuss the impact of colonial settlement on Native American populations.
Unit II: Vocabulary Words (16pts) • Militia • Speculator • The Lost Colony of Roanoke • William Penn If you copy the definitions directly from the text book, you will only receive 50% of the points. Use your own words to define. • Persecute • Puritan • Separatist • Pilgrim • Mayflower Compact • Toleration • Indentured Servant • Triangular Trade • Subsistence Farming • Cash Crop • Export • Apprentice Vocab Poster = 5pts. Word (onback) Definition: This is where you write the definition of the word. USE YOUR OWN WORDS, NOT THE TEXTBOOK DEFINITION. Picture (on front)
Warm Up: Warm up Activity: What is subsistence farming? What is an indentured servant? OCSR: What does it mean to be nomadic? Define: Militia, Persecute
Daily Question to Know • Question: • Which event from the timeline project do you feel is the most important to the development of American History? • SS.8.A.2.5: Discuss the impact of colonial settlement on Native American populations.
Unit II Timeline Project (30pts) Using your textbook; Put these events in the right chronological order, Also include a picture symbolizing EACH event. and write 2-3 sentences briefly describing the events marked with ***. • Mission of San Diego founded • ***Puritans begin settling Massachusetts Bay • ***English establish first permanent settlement at Jamestown • England defeats Spanish Armada. • ***Enslaved Africans brought to America • Proclamation of 1763 • ***Bacon’s Rebellion • Galileo observes plants and stars with telescope • Montesquieu’sThe Spirit of Laws
Unit II Timeline Poster Homework • Your event should look similar to those on the wall already. • Included must be; • Date, name of event, picture. • Sheet should be approximately ¼ sheet of paper. • Some projects may be put onto the timeline wall. • I encourage you to look for really cool interesting events. • Your homework assignment is to find an event dating from 1400-1600ad NOT ON THE TIMELINE PROJECT and create a poster board event.
Warm Up: Warm up Activity: Who is Nathaniel Bacon? What was the first permanent English settlement in North America? OCSR: What was the importance of the Caravel? Define: Triangular Trade, Export
Daily Question to Know • Question: • What are the 13 original colonies? List them all. • SS.8.A.2.5: Discuss the impact of colonial settlement on Native American populations.
Colonies Map Project • Utilize the blank map to label/color the 13 original colonies. • Also include the date which the Colonies were created.
Warm Up: Warm up Activity: What was the last colony to be made official? What is the Mayflower Compact? OCSR: Which Native American tribe practiced cannibalism? Define: The Lost Colony of Roanoke, Mayflower Compact
Daily Question to Know • Question: • What was the crucial crop that allowed the colony of Jamestown to survive and ensure that future colonies had an increased chance of success? • SS.8.A.2.5: Discuss the impact of colonial settlement on Native American populations.
Early English Settlements • England and Spain had been heading toward war for years. • They were rivals in nearly every category. • Religion, territory, exploration. • The English finally achieved victory in 1604 and defeated the Spanish Armada. • England was now free to start colonies in North America, Spanish Naval Dominance was over.
Lost Colony of Roanoke • There was an English colony on Roanoke Island. (coast of North Carolina). • Roanoke had one very harsh winter, when the winter was over people went to the island to help settle. • Everyone was gone. • The only clue they found was the word Croatoan. The colonist were never seen again.
Jamestown • Captain John Smithwas an experienced soldier and explorer. He became the governor of Jamestown. • Pocahontas did NOT marry John Smith. She married his successor John Rolfe.
Jamestown • Jamestown became the first permanent English colony. • The town almost didn’t succeed. After a hard winter and Captain John Smiths return to England the colony failed to stockpile enough food. By early 1608 only 38 people were still alive. • When Tobaccofrom the west indies was introduced it became a commercial success and guaranteed that Jamestown would survive.
Pocahontas • Don’t write this down. • The marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe in 1614 was followed by eight years of peace between the Native Americans and the English. When the Rolfes went to England, Pocahontas was received with royal honor by King James I and Queen Anne. When Pocahontas died of smallpox in 1617, Thomas Rolfe (her son), was educated in England. Upon Thomas’s return to Virginia, he became an important settler. Today many prominent Virginians claim to be his descendents.
Roanoke Comic (20pts) • Draw a Comic Strip depicting what you think happened to the LOST COLONY OF ROANOKE. • You will split your paper into 6 boxes on the front and back. (Total of 12 pictures) • You are graded on effort and creativity, not on your drawing ability. • Some examples: The colony was attacked by zombies. Aliens took over the colony. A huge whale ate them, etc. • You can get as crazy as you want to. • If you don’t want to draw a comic you can write a 1-2pg short story.
Warm Up: Warm up Activity: What was the crop that ensured the survival of Jamestown? What word was the only clue left at the colony of Roanoke? OCSR: What are the 3 G’s? Define: Pilgrim, Puritan. The Colony of Roanoke
Daily Question to Know • Question: • Why did people settle in the New England colonies? (What was their main purpose) • SS.8.A.2.2: Compare the characteristics of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.
New England Colonies • Unlike the Jamestown settlers the next major wave of settlers came to the Americas searching for Religious Freedom. • The two major groups were the; • Puritans: They wanted to reform the Anglican Church (Church of England). • Separatists: They wanted to set up their own churches.
Pilgrims • Separatists gained their religious freedom by giving the Virginia Company a share of any profits they made. • They also considered themselves Pilgrims because their journey had a religious purpose.
Mayflower Compact • They Mayflowers passengers planned to settle in the Virginia colony. Instead they made land fall at Cape Cod. • Before they made landfall they all signed The Mayflower Compactwhich they agreed to follow all laws passed and establish a civil body politic. • Basically this is a foundation for a representative government. Where people give up some of their freedoms for the greater good.
Help From the Indians • During their first winter in Cape Cod nearly ½ of the settlers died from malnutrition and exposure. • In the spring some Native Americans befriended the remaining colonists. • Squanto and Samoset, showed the Pilgrims how to grow corn, beans, and pumpkins and where to hunt and fish. • The Pilgrims also signed a treaty with Massasoitone of the major tribal leaders, and lived in harmony…
Warm Up: Warm up Activity: What were the people in the New England colonies seeking? What two Indians really helped the colonist in their first winter? OCSR: Who funded Christopher Columbus’ voyage? Define: Speculator, Mayflower Compact
Daily Question to Know • Question: • Why do you think that the colonist moved into the Native Americans territory without permission? • SS.8.A.2.5: Discuss the impact of colonial settlement on Native American populations.
New Settlements • In 1625 another large group of people came seeking religious freedom, and to establish a society based on the bible. • These people were the Puritans. • John Winthrop, became the colony governor. • They settled in Boston. • During the 1630’s more than 15,000 Puritans moved to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and hard economic times in England. This became known as the Great Migration.
Expansions into Connecticut and Rhode Island • Some of the colonists did not like the way Winthrop was running the colony. • They and some of their followers moved to close areas to establish their own colonies. • Hartfod Connecticut and into Rhode Island.
More Religious Freedom • Some people felt that their religious freedom was even challenged in America. They didn’t want a religious government, they only wanted to practice anyway that they chose to. • This allowed for more and more colonies to begin to form in North East America.
Conflict with the Natives • With the Europeans continually increasing in numbers, and expanding their colonial presence there was also many conflicts with the Native Americans. • New colonies would move into Native land without permission or payment. • Many battles occurred between the colonists and the Indians resulting in deaths on both sides.
Religious Freedom (15pts) • Take out a separate piece of binder paper. Write ½ a page explaining why having freedom of religion is important. • Write another ½ a page about what happens when people try to force their own religious views on others. • Ex) Crusades, Terrorists, Jihads, Suicide bombers.
Warm Up: Warm up Activity: Why did the Colonist move into Native American Territory? Why did people move into the Northern Colonies? OCSR: What are two interesting facts about Columbus? Define: Subsistence Farming, Cash Crop.
Daily Question to Know • Question: • What types of crops did the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies grow in order to survive? Would you classify their crops as “Cash Crops” or subsistence farming? • SS.8.A.2.3: Differentiate economic systems of New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies.
Middle Colonies • New Amsterdam, became New York • New Jersey • Pennsylvania • Pennsylvania was nearly as large as England. • Its founder was William Penn, a Quaker.
Southern Colonies • Maryland (founded by Lord Baltimore) • Instead of focusing on just Tobacco as their crops they made every farmer who planted tobacco had to plant two acres of corn. • Established as a safe place for Catholics escaping from England. • Virginia was continually expanding. • Carolinas were also settled.
New France Flag of New France • The British were not the only Europeans colonizing North America. • The Spanish and French had created colonies of their own. • French founded Quebec in 1608. • Most of their settlements were along rivers as their main reason for being in North America was to capture beavers and sell their pelts.
New Spain • In the 1600’s while other European nations were colonizing North America, Spain had solidified its hold in Mexico, Central, and South America. • They also had Missions in California. • A mission is a religious settlement established to convert people to a particular faith.
Warm Up: Warm up Activity: Who was the founder of Pennsylvania? Who else besides Great Britain was establishing colonies in America? OCSR: What type of dwellings did the Anasazi live in? Define: Triangular Trade, Cash Crop.
Daily Question to Know • Question: • Why were slaves a vital part of the American Colonist way of life? • SS.8.A.2.7: Describe the contributions of key groups (Africans, Native Americans, women, and children) to the society and culture of colonial America.
Life in the Colonies • The population of the Colonies expanded greatly. From 250,000 in 1700 to 2,500,000 people in 1770. • Large influxes of immigration, as well as people having LARGE families led to this population growth. • All colonies sustained themselves through farming.
Triangular Trade • One of the largest trading routes involved the Colonies, England, and West Africa. This was called Triangular Trade. • Sugar and Molasses went to the colonies • Was turned into rum • The rum was sent to Africa and traded for slaves • The slaves went to where the sugar and molasses were being farmed… etc.
The Middle Passage • The Middle Passage was part of this Triangular trade. • It was the part from Africacolonies/west indies. • African slaves would be put on a ship and locked down below during the entire voyage from Africa to America.
Southern Economy • The Southern Economy turned to certain types of farming. Tobacco and Rice were two big crops. • Tobacco was the principal cash crop. It was farmed in the south, then sold in Europe. • It was hard to farm and was labor intensive (led to slaves) • In South Carolina and Georgia they grew a lot of rice. This was also labor intensive and was a cause for more slaves to be sent to America.
Slavery • Most slaves worked and lived on Plantations. Some worked inside the house (house slaves), but most were used for physical labor. • Slaves were often whipped, or hung for breaking the established rules. Those who ran away were usually killed. • A majority of southerners did NOT own slaves.
Middle Passage Story (20pts) • Take out a separate piece of binder paper. • Write a 1 page FIRST PERSON story about being a slave on the middle passage. • What did you endure, what did it smell, sound, and feel like. How long did it take etc… • First person example: I felt the wood underneath me as I laid there. It smelled like rotten flesh.. Etc.
Warm Up: Warm up Activity: What were the two major cash crops that utilized slavery? How were the majority of the colonies sustaining themselves? OCSR: What type of items did Africans trade before slavery began? Define: Pilgrim, Toleration