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Restoration History

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  1. Restoration History

  2. Backgrounds/Beginnings • Rest. Move. began in America about 1800. • Began amidst older churches, not in virgin religious ground.

  3. Religion in Colonial America • One thing impressive--great diversity. • Esp. true in middle colonies--European “melting pot.” • Even dominance of state-supported churches in other areas could not keep dissenters out. • Puritan New England • Anglican South

  4. Rel., Colonial America 2 • Anglican Ch. best example of “established church” in both Europe and America. • At end of colonial period Anglican Ch. the state-church in all southern colonies. • Lost its favored status during Revolution. • 1784 Anglican churches in America became the Episcopal Church.

  5. Rel., Colonial America 3 • In NE colonies (Mass., Conn. NH) Puritan faith (Congregationalism) established. • Close ties between ch & state in NE; for many years dissenters not tolerated. • Puritans contributed more to colonial Amer. than any other religious group. • Cong. largest denom. at end of colonial era.

  6. Rel., Colonial America 4 • Rhode Island founded by dissident Puritan, Roger Williams. • Williams disagreed with Mass. Bay about church-state relations. • Fled Mass. and estab. Rhode Island 1636. • A Bap. for short time; helped found 1st Baptist church in America. • RI unique--most rel. freedom in world.

  7. Rel., Colonial America 5 • NE Puritans & southern Anglicans forced to tolerate dissenters by 1700. • Diversity. • But not the degree of middle colonies. • When British seized New Netherlands in 1664, 14 languages spoken on Long Island.

  8. Rel., Colonial America 6 • Penn.--great religious diversity. • Quakers most influential. • William Penn--rel. freedom to all who believed in God. • Several persecuted German sects--Mennonites, Moravians--came. • Lutherans too in large numbers.

  9. Rel., Colonial America 7 • Major source of Presbyterian strength the Scotch-Irish immigration of 1700s. • Settled frontier areas of Penn, Virginia & the Carolinas. • By 1775 Presby. scattered through all colonies & were 2nd largest denomination. • Thomas & Alexander Campbell part of Scotch-Irish immigration.

  10. Rel., Colonial America 8 • 5 largest denominations in 1775: • Congregationalists (658) • Presbyterians (543) • Baptists (498) • Anglicans (480) • Quakers (295)

  11. Two Great Awakenings • Great Awakening a renewal of rel. interest that swept colonies in 1730s & 1740s. • Rel. fervor waned by 1700. • Decline followed by revival. • Awakening 1st among Dutch Reformed in New Jersey ca. 1726. • Soon spread to Presby. • Brought division.

  12. Two Great Awakenings 2 • Leading figure in NE phase--Jonathan Edwards. • Northhampton, MA 1734-1740. • “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” • George Whitefield--5 trips to America. • Preached Georgia to NE. • Unifying influence in Awakening. • Revivals--many converts for Presby., Bap., & Methodists.

  13. Two Great Awakenings 3 • G. Awakening quickened interest in rel., but other results. • Encouraged humanitarian & missionary concerns. • Many colleges founded. • Gave diverse colonies a sense of oneness.

  14. Two Great Awakenings 4 • Years after Rev. War saw marked decline in religion. • Chs demoralized--less than 10% membership. • Deistic works ridiculed Xtianity--Thomas Paine’s Age of Reason. • Religious apathy followed by another period of renewal--Second Great Awakening.

  15. Two Great Awakenings 5 • 2nd Awakening reached height Kentucky. • Pres., James McGready, to Logan County, KY 1796. • Spread quickly through KY & TN. • Many others--Pres., Bap., Meth.--worked together with little regard for denominational differences

  16. Peter Cartwright (1785-1872)

  17. Methodist Circuit Rider (1785-1872)

  18. Red River Meeting House

  19. Two Great Awakenings 6 • Rev. took new forms in the West. • “Sacramental meetings”--Lord’s Supper. • “Camp meeting” born. • Strange, emotional “exercises.” • Rev. reached height Aug., 1801 Cane Ridge, KY. • Barton W. Stone. • Result: Stone began search for NT Xtianity.

  20. O’Kelly Movement • James O’Kelly (1735-1826) decade earlier than Stone. • Lay Meth. preacher during Rev. War. • Methodist Episcopal Church--“Christmas Conference” in Baltimore 1784. • O’Kelly present; not happy with episcopal form.

  21. James O’Kelly (1738-1826)

  22. O’Kelly Marker

  23. O’Kelly 2 • “Church organized of ministers, by ministers, and for ministers, with Rev. Francis Asbury at its head.” • Until 1792 “presiding elder” for s. Virginia. • Continued to oppose A’s “autocratic rule.” • Conflict climaxed at General Conference in 1792--O’Kelly withdrew.

  24. O’Kelly 3 • O’K & followers founded “Republican Methodist Church” Dec. 25, 1793. • 1000 members in short time. • 1794 agreed to elders over every church & dropped name “Republican Methodist.” • New name--Rice Haggard suggested “Christian.”

  25. O’Kelly 4 • New “Christian Church” 20,000 by 1809. • Basic beliefs: • Lordship of Christ--only head of church. • “Christian” to exclusion of all other names. • Bible only creed. • Baptism debated in 1810. • O’K not convinced regarding immersion. • Those favoring immersion left.

  26. New England Christians • NE chs appeared--similar but independent of O’Kelly movement. • Bap. in background; issue was Calvinism. • Leaders: Elias Smith & Abner Jones. • Smith--all theological systems wrong; be guided only by scripture. • Jones (influenced by S.) organized independent “Christian” ch. Lyndon, Vermont, 1801.

  27. Abner Jones (1772-1841)

  28. Elias Smith (1769-1846)

  29. Abner Jones (1772-1841)

  30. NE Christians 2 • 1807--12 ministers; 14 churches. • Smith--Herald of Gospel Liberty 1808. • Communication with O’K movement May 27, 1809. • 1811 Smith attended O’K conference in south. • 2 movements became “Christian Connection.” • 1931 Congregational Christian Church. • 1957 United Church of Christ.

  31. The Stone Movement • Barton W. Stone (1772-1844). • Son of well-to-do Maryland planter. • Father died; family to Virginia frontier 1779. • Estate divided 1790; S. used his share for education at David Caldwell’s academy in NC. • Academy a one-man college, but good.

  32. Barton W. Stone (1772-1844)

  33. Barton W. Stone

  34. Stone 2 • Caldwell a Pres. minister and religion dominated academy. • James McGready came for revival. • S. convicted of sin. • But Calvinism left him without hope of mercy. • Later William Hodge preached. • Stressed love of God. • Stone converted.

  35. Stone 3 • S.’s interests toward Pres. ministry. • Trial sermon before presbytery. • “Trinity” difficult, but sermon accepted. • Left school for Washington, GA. • Not only doctrine of Trinity. • Misgivings ca. other Pres. theology.

  36. Stone 4 • Washington, GA--S. taught in school operated by Methodist, Hope Hull. • Hull at 1792 Methodist Conference. • Voted with O’Kelly, but didn’t leave M. • 1796, licensed, to TN and KY--Cane Ridge & Concord. • 1798 ordination crisis. • Misgivings. • “I do, as far as I see it consistent with the word of God.”

  37. Cane Ridge Revival • 1797 McGready to Logan County, KY. • May, 1797 awakening at Gaspar River. • Beg. of 2nd Great Awakening in west. • Joined by William & John McGee as revival spread. • Two noteworthy features: • “Exercises” • Participation of different denominations.`

  38. Cane Ridge 2 • Stone wrestling with 2 problems: • Calvinistic theology. • Spiritual apathy. • Spring 1801 to Logan County. • Baffled by “exercises.” • Conclusion: Somehow the “work of God.”

  39. Red River Meeting House

  40. Cane Ridge 3 • Returning to CR S’s preaching produced same results. • Spring & summer 1801 spread across the bluegrass. • Climax, August 1801, Cane Ridge. • 20,000 to 30,000. • 6 days, day and night. • 100s (1000s?) succumbed to “exercises.”