The Colonies Come of Age Chapter 3
One American’s Story (p. 66) Who is the main orator of the passage? What is the main idea of the passage? When did this take place? Where did this take place? Why did this take place? 3.1: England and its colonies
Mercantilism Parliament Navigation Acts Dominion of New England Sir Edmund Andros Glorious Revolution Salutary Neglect Terms to define…
The one and only reason for the est. of the colonies was to make England the most powerful country in the world Under the theory of mercantilism, the goal of every nation was to acquire the most bullion of gold and silver. Hence, whoever had the most gold/silver was the most powerful nation. England and its colonies prosper
England saw the colonies as three goals toward a favorable balance of trade (sell more than you buy) • A source of free raw materials supplied to England (lumber, furs, codfish, tobacco, etc) • A market that would always buy British goods (furniture, utensils, books, china, etc) • Producer of British goods to be sold world wide
In hopes of making a profit, many colonial merchants not only gave England its possessions, but also sold them to other European countries (Spain, France, Holland…) • England saw this colonial venture as a possible economic threat, thus in 1651 Parliament passed a series of Navigation Acts. • No country could trade w/ the colonies w/o shipping first to England • All vessels’ crews had to be at least ¾ English • All ships had to be made in England or colonies • The colonies could only export some goods to England • All colonial goods had to travel first to England, and then on to their final destination (for tax purposes)
Objective: To analyze the causes and effects of the Navigation Acts of the 1660’s. A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism, by Claude Lorrain.
Navigation Acts (1660's) I’m bloody filthy rich! furniture lumber tools iron textiles cotton 1) Most products could be sold only to England. Ex.) sugar, tobacco, indigo
2) All products going to the colonies had to first go through England where the products were taxed. spices tea tea spices
Let’s Review… All ships used in trade had to be built in either England or the colonies. Mercantilism– An economic system based on the idea that a nation could increase its wealth by importing raw materials from, and export finished goods to, its colonies.
Navigation Acts (1660's) I’m bloody filthy rich! furniture Ik ben het eens! lumber tools Il serait moins coûteux pour le commerce direct avec l'Amérique! iron textiles ¿Por qué debo pagar a los británicos tan altos precios? cotton 1) Most products could be sold only to England. Ex.) sugar, tobacco, indigo
Effects of the Navigation Acts • There was an increase in smuggling in the colonies. • Colonists became angry when England began to enforce the Navigation Acts.
These restrictions were met w/ hostility among colonial merchants, who began trading illegally w/ foreign nations (smuggling) King Charles II set out to punish those responsible for these acts—the leaders & and and merchants of Massachusetts King Charles II revoked Mass corporate charter, and replaced it w/ a royal charter, thus making the king the ultimate authority in New England (vocabulary term) Tensions emerge
King James II went even further, and placed all of New England under the direct rule of one man—it was known as the Dominion of New England, and King James chose Sir Edmund Andros in charge. • He questioned the legality of the Puritan laws • Forcefully enforced the Navigation Acts • Restricted local assemblies • Taxed arbitrarily
Before the colonists could respond to the Kings actions, the “bloodless” or “Glorious” Revolution" had occurred in London • King James’ pro-Catholic policies in England made him an enemy by most of the population; when he fathered a son (to be raised Catholic), the people of England revolted, and called on William and Mary (monarch of Holland) to come and take the throne. • Hearing the news, the colonist arrested Andros and restored its original charter • Parliament however created a new charter in 1691—the King had to appoint the governor of Massachusetts, and stated that more religious toleration had to occur in New England
England operated under the old adage “Out of sight—out of mind”; meaning that as long as the colonies kept up with its Navigation Act responsibilities, then England would leave them alone. • This policy was known as salutary neglect (aka Beneficial relaxation) • The appointed governors in the colonies had more power on paper than in reality; they were influenced very much by the colonists ($) • QUESTION: What impact did salutary neglect have on the colonies? • The seeds of self-government were being planted in the colonists during this time of salutary neglect, which lasted during the first half of the 1700s England loosens the reins
One American’s Story Who is the main orator of the passage? What is the main idea of the passage? When did this take place? Where did this take place? Why did this take place? 3.2: The Agricultural south (pg. 72)
Cash Crop Slave Triangular Trade Middle Passage Stono Rebellion Terms to know
Cash crops was the economic livelihood for the southern colonies: tobacco, rice, indigo. Planters were the owners of large plantations The South differed from the north in that, it put all its eggs in one basket… planting. A plantation economy arises
Many immigrants moved to the South; Germans, Scots, and Irish settled in the region and raised livestock as well as planted cash crops Women in southern (and northern) colonies were seen as second class citizens. Their daily roles were to cook, milk cows, slaughter pigs, sew, wash clothes, clean, etc. Life in southern society
Indentured servants were near the bottom of society; they worked very hard while in bondage, many died before gaining freedom There was a large % of indentured servants within colonial population (about 1/2—2/3) With large plantations needing huge labor supply, Southern colonists turned to African slave labor to fill the need.
The English (like Spanish) first forced Native Americans to work their land, but they were quick to escape b/c of their knowledge of land Indentured servants filled the need temporarily, their numbers dropped dramatically due to their service being up, plus the amount of labor was vast. Colonists believed that Africans’ were better suited to work in hot climates, and were less likely to escape b/c they didn’t know the geography Slavery becomes entrenched
Africans were being used as slave labor in the sugar plantations in the West Indies for many years • The 17th century the triangular trade began; it was the systematic network began by the Portuguese which • Loaded ships w/ manufactured goods and sailed them down to the west coast of Africa; • African slave traders would barter slaves for guns; • The slave ships would then travel across the Atlantic Ocean (Middle Passage) to South, Latin, and then North America • Once they sold slaves to the southern plantation owners, they would buy goods to resell in Europe
Slaves were a diverse group of people—speaking many languages and coming from many different parts of Africa (SC & GA had homogenous groups from the same region) However, when in America, they bonded together in order to cope w/ the harsh reality of their new lives Traditional African culture (music, dance, etc) were kept alive in the New World Africans cope in their new world
Some slaves rebelled against their captivity The Stono Rebellion began in Sept. 1739; 20 slaves met at the Stono River in Charles Towne (Charleston) SC; they killed many planters, and began marching beating a drum calling for other slaves to join them The rebellion was easily crushed, but it caused the South to tighten many harsh slave laws. Some slaves were able to escape to the north, and rebellions continued. Slave labor became more entrenched in the South.
One American’s Story Who is the main orator of the passage? What is the main idea of the passage? When did this take place? Where did this take place? Why did this take place? 3.3: the commercial north (pg 79)
Under mercantilism, the colonies existed solely to improve the economy of England, however the colonial economy grew twice as fast as England's from 1650 to 1750 There was agriculture in the North, but rather than one cash crop, several crops were grown Wheat, fish, lumber became huge industries in the North, as well as ship building and iron production Commerce grows in the north
Port cities grew in the North; in contrast to the South’s only port city (Charles Towne), the North had Boston, New York City, Philadelphia. “Philly” became the second largest city in the British empire (after London)—it was laid out in a grid like structure w/ parks in the middle (wards)—it became the basis of many urban planned cities in America
The Northern colonies attracted many types of immigrants (Germans, Scots-Irish were the two largest immigrant classes) causing a diverse American society Due to the lack of large plantations, the North did not need extensive slave labor, however slavery did exist in the North. They enjoyed more rights than the slaves in the South, but were still considered property Northern society is diverse
Women in the North had huge responsibilities, but had little freedom in society • In Feb. 1692 a combination of women’s rights, social tension, and strained relationships of Native Americans caused a bizarre event to occur—the Salem Witch Trials • A few people accused a West Indian slave girl (Tituba) of witchcraft in the town of Salem, the girls tried to save themselves by naming other “witches”. • Hysteria grew; girls even said the governors wife was a witch—people knew the charges were false. They closed down the trials, but 19 hanged—150 total were imprisoned.
The Enlightenment spread throughout Europe, which stated that the world was not governed by chance or miracles, but through set mathematical laws (Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, etc) Ben Franklin was a Enlightened thinker, and conducted many experiments to showcase natures realities New ideas influence the colonists
The Puritan church was losing its grip on society; the new charter in 1691 created more religious freedom, thus many people steered away from the Puritan ideals that founded the colony Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield sought to revive the Puritan ideals in society—he began the process of Puritan preachers traveling from town to town holding revivals outdoors known as the Great Awakening (1730s—1740s) Great Awakening
One American’s Story (pg 85) Who is the main orator of the passage? What is the main idea of the passage? When did this take place? Where did this take place? Why did this take place? 3.4: the French and Indian war
How did the American Revolution evolve from a movement of a handful of patriots, to an accepted change of allegiance and lifestyle? Unit Essential Question (unit 2)
1. Michael Jordan is the best basketball player of all time. 2. Michael Jordan played basketball for the Chicago Bulls. What is the difference b/t these two statements…
New France George Washington French and Indian War William Pitt Pontiac Proclamation of 1763 George Grenville Sugar Act Terms to know
England and France were the two biggest rivals in Europe during the 1750s—an area of great contention was the rich Ohio River Valley France began colonial exploration in 1534 when Jacques Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence River; 64 years later Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec. In 1682 Cavelier and La Salle claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for France (Louisiana). New France had a population of 70,000 in the British colonies (Britain had over a million) The French had friendly relationships w/ the natives; they were fur traders who did not want vast amounts of land, and some were priests trying to convert natives Rivals for an empire
Britain defeats an old enemy • The French built a fort in present day Pittsburg in an area that the British believed to be theirs—in the Ohio River Valley • The Virginia governor sent in a small militia led by a 22 year old officer (George Washington) to evict the French from their fort • The French forced Washington to surrender—the French and Indian War had begun.
A year later, Washington and Braddock launched another attack on the French Fort Duquesne—they were unable to gain the fort Britain’s King George II was embarrassed by continual French victories in the colonies, and instilled William Pitt to govern in the colonies—the British began winning some victories, which caused the IroquoisConfederacy to support them Sept. 1759 saw a French defeat in Quebec that ended the French and Indian War. The Treaty of Paris (1763) officially ended the war—Britain claimed all lands east of the Mississippi (including Florida); Spain gained all lands west of the Mississippi River The Natives felt the British were harder to deal w/ than the French
The Native American’s were scared that the continual migration of the British west of the Appalachian Mts would cause the game (bison) they relied on for survival—they realized that the French defeat was also a defeat for the Indians Pontiac led a Native American revolt that captured 8 British forts in the Ohio Valley The British offered a peace token of smallpox-infected blankets to the Native Americans. This caused them to grow weak In order to avoid war w/ the Natives, Parliament issued the Proclamation of 1763, which forbade settlement west of the Appalachian Mts, however this was nearly impossible to enforce
Because the Proclamation of 1763 sought to halt colonial expansion, many colonist felt that the British govt were apathetic toward their needs Tensions between Britain and Mass (Boston) grew; in an attempt to crack down on smuggling (Nav. Acts), the governor allowed officials to search all vessels, as well as merchants homes—Bostonians were outraged The colonies and Britain grow apart
BACKLASH! British Proclamation Line of 1763. Line forbids colonists from settling WEST of the line. Colonists hate this limit on their freedom.