Intro to Analysis Professor Allison Rossett updated James Marshall, Fall 2005 firstname.lastname@example.org/rossett.html
Training centerRespondInstructor dominatedTeaching & learningBureaucratic control Distributed & desktopAnticipate & consultLearner centeredResultsOn demand Our New World
“Training will have to be very efficient, increasingly more individualized, and on demand, embedded in the system that employees use to perform their work." Training 2000 Internal Revenue Service
Practice You are a training manager (with a performance perspective, natch) for a large, BIG 5 accounting firm. You want your consultants, 11,500 of them, to be more savvy about an emergent area: security and encryption. Oh, not all need to be EXPERTS. But they need to know enough to talk intelligently, to ask questions, to find the right experts. First, get with 4 or 5 classmates and visit this web site. Take 5 minutes to get a feel for the site and content. Next, use your readings in FTF, Gilbert, and the FTF web site to respond to the practice that follows.
Practice “Thanks for stopping by. Here’s the story.We’re taking a beating on this security and encryption thing.Frankly, I think our consultants haven’t a clue, but I’m not sure.I want them to get skilled up on it, learn all about it, you know.Somebody told me about this online program from NCSU and I thought maybe we’d put them all through it. What do you think?”
Practice:What questions would you ask the sponsor? • ? • ? • ? • ? • ?
“You cannot solve a problem if you are thinking at the same level you were when you created the problem.” Albert Einstein How does analysis help you look at things with fresh eyes?
Analysis--the basics • Substance & politics • Iterative: two flavors of analysis: performance analysis & needs assessment • Focused on THREE kinds of information
Finding the gaps • Optimals — Actuals = Gaps
4 kinds of causes or drivers Problems with people 1. Skills and knowledge • They don’t know how to do it • They’ve forgotten • There’s too much to know and it’s volatile
4 kinds of causes or drivers Problems with people 2. Motivation • They don’t know why to do it • They don’t care • They don’t believe they can value x confidence = motivation
4 kinds of causes or drivers Problems with the Organizational Culture 3. Environment • They don’t have the “right” tools, equipment, time, policies, physical space or processes.
4 kinds of causes or drivers Problems with the Organizational Culture 4. Incentives • They aren’t asked to do so. • Doing it results in a hassle. • Doing it is ignored. • Not doing it is rewarded.
Examples of drivers at work • Teachers leave their computers in the closet because they don’t know how to use them. Service reps fail to provide information-- can’t remember regs. • Some don’t see the value of the new software; the old works just fine! Engineers doubt they can be ‘digital.’ • The on line help system is complex, difficult to use, and not a good match for functional challenges. Orders must be reentered into the system three times prior to filling. • Supervisors regularly give more jobs, and more difficult jobs, to the people who produce the most. 1. Skills & knowledge 2. Motivation 3. Environment 4. Incentives
Practice: drivers in your work? 1. Skills & knowledge 2. Motivation 3. Environment 4. Incentives
Causes define solutions Lack of skill or knowledge People don’t because they don’t know how, or they’ve forgotten, or there’s just too much to know. • Education/training • Information support (job aids) • Documentation • Knowledge management • Coaching and mentoring • Selection of people who already know how Solutions
Causes define solutions • Weak or absent motivation People don’t because they don’t care or they don’t believe they can. • Education/training • Information support (job aids) • Documentation • Knowledge management • Coaching, mentoring • Participatory goal setting • Selection of people who want to do it Solutions
Causes define solutions • Ineffective environment People don’t because processes or jobs are poorly designed, or necessary tools or memory are unavailable or... • Re-engineered processes • New or improved tools or technologies or work spaces • New policies • Job design or redesign • Job enrichment • Poka-yoke http://www.campbell.berry.edu/faculty/jgrout/everyday.html Solutions
Causes define solutions • Ineffective or absent incentives People don’t because doing it isn’t recognized, doing it is a hassle, or not doing it is ignored. • Improved appraisal/recognition programs • Management development • New policies • Participatory programs, like quality circles Solutions
PA------>TNA Optimals Oughts Revised Course Job Aids EPSS Actuals Is Courses T&D TNA’s CBT/WBT Gap Analysis Solution System Recommendation Causes Drivers Solution Partners Cause Analysis
A quickie tour of analyses associated with performance analysis Seehttp://edweb.sdsu.edu/courses/EDTEC540/Syllabus/Buffy/buffy_part2.html
A quickie tour of analyses associated with training needs assessment Seehttp://edweb.sdsu.edu/courses/EDTEC540/Syllabus/Buffy/buffy_part2.html
“For every complex problem there is a simple solution which is, inevitably, wrong.” H. L. Mencken