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Conquest and Colonies. Exploration. Spirit of discover and innovation b/c of Renaissance Money Get rid of middle man (Italian merchants) Faster routes to Asia Prestige Christianize Curiosity . Reasons for exploration. New technologies. Compass Astrolabe Mapmaking Cartographer

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Presentation Transcript
reasons for exploration

Spirit of discover and innovation b/c of Renaissance

Money

Get rid of middle man (Italian merchants)

Faster routes to Asia

Prestige

Christianize

Curiosity

Reasons for exploration
new technologies
New technologies
  • Compass
  • Astrolabe
  • Mapmaking
    • Cartographer
  • Shipbuilding
    • Deep-draft ships
    • Caravel
portugal
Portugal
  • The first
  • Henry the Navigator
  • Court of sailors
  • Explored African coast
  • Goal= route from Africa to India
  • Bartolomeu Dias
    • Cape of Good Hope
  • Vasco Da Gama
    • Reached Calicut, India
spain
spain
  • Christopher Columbus
    • Sail west to China
    • Reached the Caribbean
  • Amerigo Vespucci
  • Ferdinand Magellan
    • Circumnavigate
exploration continues
Exploration continues
  • England
    • John Cabot- Canada
    • Sir Francis Drake-Western U.S.
  • France
    • Jacques Cartier- St Lawrence River
  • Dutch
    • Henry Hudson- Northwest passage
spain s empire
Spain’s Empire
  • Settled colonies in America
  • Conquered the Aztecs and Incas
the caribbean

First region settled by the Spanish

    • Hispaniola and Cuba
  • Encomienda system
    • Colonists given land and NA to work land
    • Colonists then had to teach NA about Christianity
    • NA overworked and mistreated
  • Europeans brought diseases
    • Smallpox, tuberculosis, measles, etc.
    • NA had no resistance to diseases
The Caribbean
cortes vs moctezuma

Hernan Cortes, a conquistador

  • Aztec emperor= Moctezuma II
  • Aztecs
    • Rich and powerful
    • Not popular among those they conquered
    • Capital= Tenochtitlan
  • Cortes and unhappy NA soldiers conquered Aztec Empire
Cortes vs. Moctezuma
how did cortes do it
How Did Cortes Do It?
  • Malinche- translator to Cortes
  • Metal weapons and heavy armor
  • Horses- NA had never seen horses before
  • Disease
pizarro and peru

Wanted wealth from Inca Empire

Inca Empire weakened by disease and new ruler

Pizarro asked Atahualpa to convert to Christianity and give empire to Spain

Atahaulpa refused and was killed

Pizarro then easily took over the empire

Pizarro and Peru
governing the americas

Viceroys- officials to rule in king’s name

  • Mined gold and silver
  • NA population dropped more than 90%
  • Bartolome de Las Casas- didn’t like treatment of NA
    • Replace NA slaves with African slaves
Governing the Americas
portugal and brazil

Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)- imaginary line through Atlantic

    • West of line belonged to Spain
    • East of line belonged to Portugal
  • Brazil= lots of jungles
    • Made farming difficult
    • Portuguese slow to settle the region
Portugal and Brazil
new france

French settled in New France, aka Canada

  • Lots of fish in North Atlantic
  • Fox, lynx, otter, and other furs= hot commodities in Europe
  • French merely sent small groups of traders
  • Didn’t enslave NA- intermingled
  • French also explored south of Canada
    • Mississippi River
    • Louisiana
New France
dutch exploration

Looking for trade opportunities

New Netherland- Hudson River Valley

New Amsterdam- New York City

Dutch colonies in America remained relatively small

Dutch focused on developing colonies in other parts of the world

Dutch Exploration
british expansion
British Expansion
  • Jamestown- first English colony
  • Pilgrims came too in 1620
    • Plymouth, Massachusetts
  • English colonists didn’t get along with NA
french and indian war
French and Indian War
  • British started settling on French territory
  • British did poorly at first
  • French eventually lost
    • Surrendered Canada and territory east of the Mississippi
columbian exchange

Exchanging of plants, animals, and disease

America- potatoes, corn, sweet potatoes, or turkeys

Europe- coffee, oranges, rice, wheat, sheep, or cattle

New foods- healthier Europeans- lived longer

Diseases once again killed millions

Columbian Exchange
mercantilism

Nation’s wealth= nation’s strength/power

  • Wealth measured by amount of gold and silver
  • 2 ways to get wealth
    • Mining and favorable balance of trade
  • Emphasis on establishment of colonies
    • Raw materials and new markets
  • Put restrictions on colonies
Mercantilism
capitalism

Economy run by private individuals and companies

  • Investors willing to take risks
  • Joint-stock companies
    • Buying shares of stock in a company
    • British East India Company
Capitalism
slave trade

Shortage of laborers led to slave trade

  • NA killed by diseases and wars
  • Indentured servants too expensive
  • So, Africans became slaves in America
  • Triangular trade
    • Goods from Europe to Africa- African slaves to America- American products to Europe
Slave Trade
middle passage
Middle Passage
  • Slaves jammed into tight quarters
  • Chained together and dark
  • 3 to 6 weeks
  • 10-20% died on voyage
colonial slavery

Most slaves worked on plantations

  • Living conditions were harsh
  • Enslaved Africans= property by law
    • No rights, no freedoms
  • Reaction of slaves
    • Resisted by preserving culture
    • Religion
    • Rebellions
    • Escape
Colonial Slavery
effects of slave trade

Millions died

Deprived people of their freedoms

Future leaders of Africa gone

Divided Africans

Slave labor boosted American colonies

Those culture and descent spread in Americas

Effects of Slave Trade