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Study guide…. Match the layers of the GI tract to their location and type of tissue they contain. Identify the enzymes that digest each nutrient and their location.

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study guide
Study guide…
  • Match the layers of the GI tract to their location and type of tissue they contain.
  • Identify the enzymes that digest each nutrient and their location.
  • Describe the role of pH in digestion.
  • List the parts of the small and large intestine in order.
  • Describe how villi aids in absorption in the small intestine.
study guide1
Study guide…
  • Describe the digestive role of the pancreas and liver.
  • Describe how the nervous and endocrine systems regulate digestion.
  • Apply the nutritional guidelines for carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
digestive system
Digestive System

















Figure 14.1

gastrointestinal gi tract layers from the lumen name the 4 layers
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract LayersFrom the lumen…Name the 4 layers
  • Mucous membrane
  • Connective, nervous, blood vessels
  • Smooth muscle
  • Serous membrane
  • Secretes mucus, digestive enzymes, acid; absorbs
  • Carries nutrients
  • Movement from esophagus to anus
  • Secretes lubricating fluid
gastrointestinal gi tract wall
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Wall


Lymph vessel








Figure 14.2

the mouth
The Mouth
  • Saliva
    • Salivary glands
      • Parotid
      • Submandibular
      • Sublingual
    • What enzyme digests carbohydrates in the mouth?
  • The tongue forms a bolus and moves it into the pharynx.
structure of the stomach wall
Structure of the Stomach Wall

What cells line the pits?

Figure 14.7a–b

stomach function
Stomach Function
  • Specific cells secrete gastric juice
    • Hydrochloric acid
      • Produces a pH of about 2; activates pepsinogen
    • Mucus
      • Protects stomach lining from acid
    • Pepsinogen
      • What activated enzyme begins protein digestion?
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Chyme enters the small intestine after 2-6 hours.

What muscles are involuntarily churning your food?

Figure 14.8

small intestine
Small Intestine
  • Functions
    • Digestion
      • Neutralizes acid from stomach
      • Adds digestive enzymes and bile
      • Breaks proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to absorbable materials
    • Absorption
      • 95% of food absorbed in small intestine
small intestine1
Small Intestine
  • Structure
      • Duodenum
      • Jejunum
      • Ileum
    • Mucosa adaptations
      • Villi containing blood and lacteal capillaries
accessory organs aid digestion and absorption
Accessory Organs: Aid Digestion and Absorption
  • Liver
    • Produces bile (What stores it?)
    • Hepatic portal
      • Drains blood from digestive tract to liver
accessory organs aid digestion and absorption2
Accessory Organs: Aid Digestion and Absorption
  • Pancreas
    • Exocrine functions
    • Secretes digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate
      • Which enzyme acts on carbohydrates?
      • Proteins?
      • Fats?
absorption of fats
Absorption of Fats

Figure 14.14

large intestine structure and function
Large Intestine: Structure and Function
  • Functions
    • Absorbs water and vitamins
    • Eliminates waste
  • Structure
    • Cecum, appendix
    • Colon
    • Rectum, anus
endocrine and nervous systems regulation of digestion
Endocrine and Nervous Systems Regulation of Digestion
  • Regulation dependent on volume and content of food
    • Nervous system
      • Stretch receptors in stomach
    • Hormones
      • Gastrin
      • Secretin
      • Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  • Digested into glucose
  • Pancreas secretes insulin
  • Insulin binds to receptors on cells
  • Glucose can now enter cells to make ATP
  • What if your insulin receptors become less sensitive?
    • Cells scream at pancreas to release more insulin
    • High insulin leads to higher blood pressure, high cholesterol and fat deposition
    • Increased risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and liver problems
what changes can you make today
What changes can you make today?
  • Exercise-helps insulin attach to receptors
  • Get lean-Fat cells sabotage muscle cells
  • Eat original, whole grain vs. refined, processed
    • Insulin receptors work best if you keep your blood sugar steady
  • Eat fiber
    • Slows down sugar absorption process
    • Friend to your digestive tract
    • Aim for 25-35 grams per day
  • Made of amino acids
    • 9 essential amino acids can not be made by the body
    • 11 nonessential amino acids can be made by the body if the building blocks are there
  • Come from plant and animal sources
    • Animal sources and soy provide all 9 essential amino acids
    • Empties stomach slowly and leaves you feeling full longer
  • What if you eat more protein that what you need?
    • Deposited as body fat
what changes can you make today1
What changes can you make today?
  • Eat 0.8grams of protein per kg of body weight.
  • Choose wisely
    • Fish, shellfish, skinless (white meat) poultry
    • Lean beef (>85%) with visible fat removed
    • Beans, lentils, tofu, peanut butter, seeds
    • Grill, bake, broil, roast, poach, stir fry
  • Fats help to maintain healthy skin, hairand transports vitamins (ADEK)
  • Saturated vs. Unsaturated
  • Trans-fatty acids
    • reduce the ability of cells to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream
  • High density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol
    • carries cholesterol to the liver where it is converted to bile salts
  • Low density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol
    • Deposits within walls of arteries and increases risk of heart attacks and stroke
what changes can you make today2
What changes can you make today?

Limit saturated fats

  • Found in animals and processed snack food
  • Avoid trans fats
    • Ingredient list will say hydrogenated
  • Limit cholesterol to 300 mg per day
  • Choose unsaturated fats
    • Found in most plants, nuts, seeds and fish
    • Choose polys and monos
    • Include omega fatty acids
  • Don’t smoke…it will increase your LDLs and lower your HDLs